BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: climate change (Page 1 of 2)

Glaciers Hold Less Water than Previously Thought. Is this Good?

Last summer in Alaska, I was kayaking up to the Holgate Glacier when I noticed the water getting colder. I began to feel the katabatic winds as I got even closer to the massive wall of ice. Small ice chunks began to surround the kayak, and I could see the fast moving silt deposits flowing beneath me. I then heard a noise which boomed and echoed off of the surrounding mountains, and I saw a massive chunk of ice break off (“calve”) from the glacier and plummet into the sea. I’ve always known that climate change was happening, but seeing it before my eyes reaffirmed my fears.

Aialik glacier pano 2

Holgate Glacier, Aialik Bay, Kenai Fjords National Park, Seward, Alaska

I’m not here to talk about my fantastic trip to Alaska, but rather to talk about the new scientific findings which will further predict the climate change battle. Previously, scientists believed that warmer-than-average temperatures can begin to melt glaciers, causing the sea levels to rise and cause disastrous flooding. Just recently, satellite image glacier research spearheaded by Romain Millan of Grenoble Alpes University in France has determined that glaciers hold 20% less water than previously thought. This means that, if all of the glacier ice were to melt, that the seas are predicted to rise 10 inches instead of 13 inches.

This is great news, right? Well, some could argue that less flooding means less disaster (landslides, wipe out infrastructure, etc), and that it’s good news. But it’s not, because even if the sea levels were to rise just a few inches lower, still 29% of the entire world’s population would be predicted to be immediately affected by flooding, and within a few days, 99.9% of the entire world’s population would feel the indirect effects through shortages or outages. In addition, less water quite literally means “less water.” 2 billion people currently rely on glaciers as their primary source of water, so “less water” would effect them through a drought. As

Parque estatal Chugach, Alaska, Estados Unidos, 2017-08-22, DD 94

Glacier at Chugach State Park, Alaska (which I too visited)

we’ve learned in AP Biology, water is one of the most, if not the most, important molecules to biological existence. A drought can affect human life from hundreds of angles, such as famine, or more immediately, dehydration. Water is extremely crucial to performing catabolic reactions such as hydrolysis, which we learned in AP Biology.

Factoring in mountaintop glaciers and their water content, Millan is able to determine the rate at which communities will run out of water. But for the non-alpine communities, these mountaintop glaciers are only a tiny drop in a large bucket. Millan’s research lacks one major component: the antarctic and arctic glaciers. If these unbelievably large ice fields continue to melt at the current pace, 90% of the United States is predicted to be underwater by 2050. To be honest, I believed this statistic was exaggerating until just recently. In Alaska, one of the glaciers named “Exit Glacier” had markers at the glacier’s terminus for each year. As I got closer to the glacier, I noticed the markers getting further and further away, signaling that the glacier was melting quicker and quicker. Take a look at the graph below, specifically how the year intervals begin to get smaller, and let me know how it makes you feel in the comments. Although it does not take a trip to Alaska to realize that climate change is really happening, new and emerging headline-worthy research like Millan’s is truly highlighting the immediate issue we all could face soon.

Exit Glacier Terminus Position From 1950-2020

 

 

Gasping For Air

Fish! We all love fish, right? From enjoying amazing fish taco to gazing at their beauty at an aquarium, fish are a very important part of many cultures. However, the fish are in need of our help. Climate change is rapidly increasing, the ocean’s waters, and we need to step in before it’s too late.

A study analyzing the climate suggests that the rising temperatures of the ocean as a result of climate change are directly impacting the ocean’s ecosystems. The warmer the water, the less availability there is for oxygen to dissolve, which is why there is much less algae and other sea life in warmer places like Florida or the Caribbean. It may seem like the oceans in these tropical places are much cleaner and healthier because of the beautiful crystal clear waters, but it is quite the opposite. In waters in the Northeast, the darker green water is primarily due to the large amount of plant life as a result of the plentiful amount of oxygen dissolved in the waters.

This deoxygenation of the waters can become detrimental to the ocean’s sea life if left ignored. It is estimated that 70% of the ocean’s sea life will be suffocating due to climate change by the year 2080. It may seem far away, but if left ignored, it will come faster than expected.

The layer of the ocean that is most effected is known as the mesopelagic zone. This zone is roughly 200-1000 meters from the surface, so unlike the surface region, does not get the same amount of oxygen from photosynthesis. As we learned in class, plants need light to perform photosynthesis, and as the ocean gets deeper, there is less light available, meaning less photosynthesis to be done, and therefore less oxygen available to the marine life.

Large fish school

This zone is home to most of the fish that we eat as a result of commercial fishing, which is why it is so important we begin to fix the issue. Fish is a staple food in many different countries and cultures, and if we let the ocean heat up too much, their availability is at severe risk.

Studies show that by lowering greenhouse gas emission, we can slow down the rate of global warming and therefore preserve our precious oceans. This is not going to happen over night, and requires everyone to help out. There’s no greater time than the present, so let’s start saving our oceans one step at a time!

 

Water’s Importance in Photosynthesis in California’s Rice Plants.

A rice farmer would be sloshing through inches of water amid lush, green rice plants in a typical year. But today, the soil lies naked and baking in 35 degrees Celsius or 95 degrees Fahrenheit heat during a devastating drought. The drought started in early 2020, and conditions have progressively gotten worse due to climate change. Low water levels in reservoirs and rivers have forced farmers to slash their water use. One farmer named Rystrom says, “We’ve had to cut back between 25 and 50 percent.” He’s relatively lucky. In some parts of the Sacramento Valley, he says farmers received no water this season in the United States, depending on water rights.

Green rice sheaves planted in a paddy field with long shadows at golden hour in Don Det Laos

California is the second-largest U.S. producer of rice, and over 95 percent of California’s rice is grown within about 160 kilometers of Sacramento. Rice growers in the valley below count on the range of mountains that contain snow to give them enough water for the season. In spring, melting snowpack flows into rivers and reservoirs and then through an intricate network of canals and drainages to rice fields that farmers irrigate in a shallow inundation from April or May to September or October. If too little snow falls in those mountains, farmers like Rystrom are forced to leave fields unplanted. On August 4, Lake Oroville, which supplies Rystrom and other local rice farmers with irrigation water, was at its lowest level on record.

Water is a fundamental part of the process of photosynthesis. Water acts as a reducing agent by providing H+ ions that convert NADP to NADPH. This electron loss must be fulfilled by electrons from some other reducing agent. Hydrogen ions thus released create a chemical potential (chemiosmotic) across the membrane that finally results in ATP synthesis. Photosystem II is primarily known for its use of water to fuel its system, which fuels Photosystem I. Since there is a lack of water in Rystrom’s rice fields, the photosynthesis that would occur in the rice plants cannot happen. If there is no water, there is no photosynthesis, and if there is no photosynthesis, there is no rice. The water allows the rice plant to go through the two Photosynthesis Cycles and then the Calvin cycle, which allows for glucose production. Glucose enables the plant to grow and mature. If the plant cannot grow, there will be no rice.

Photosynthesis

If the water in the California Valleys continues to plummet, California may not feed half of the world. If and maybe even when that happens, the rice market will not function. Water is so important to these farmers and so crucial to the plants. Is it possible to save the water we have left? Is it possible to reverse our mistakes with global warming to save these farms? I honestly don’t know, but I am willing to do what it takes to preserve what we have left.

 

Climate Change’s Toll On Fish

What if I told you that by 2080 almost 80% of the world’s oceans will be suffocating from a lack of oxygen due to climate change. It seems like every year we get yet another grim fact that if we do not act by a certain time it will be too late. This is the reality for all the world’s oceans.

Multiple studies have shown that the mesopelagic zone (from 656 to 3,281 ft below sea level), the area that holds the most fish in the ocean, is the most vulnerable since it is not as enriched with oxygen as are the upper layers of the ocean. This is also because the most algae is decomposed in the mesopelagic zone, which absorbs oxygen.

You may be wondering how climate change actually affects oceanic wildlife. As the earth warms, its waters warm with it causing there to be less dissolved oxygen in the water. This issue on top of there being less oxygen already in the mesopelagic zone means a lot of death amongst fish. Fish, like us human beings, need oxygen to perform cellular respiration in order to survive. Similar to what we learned in class, fish intake oxygen and release carbon dioxide. However, they do this process in a slightly different way than us humans. Fish have gills which are positioned at the sides of its body. Water passes over the gills, specifically the gill filaments, and is filtered in as oxygen. There are also blood capillaries located very close to the surface of the gills so that the fish can take in as much oxygen as needed and release carbon dioxide smoothly. The overall goal of this process is to make ATP, in order for the fish to stay alive. However, in this time of climate crisis where oceans are undergoing deoxygenation, fish are struggling to stay alive and this can actually have effects on us.

A lot of the fish that are at stake include some essential to our nutrition. Fish is a key source of protein for us and without it our health might be at risk. Additionally, many of the fish who are in the danger zone are commercial fish which we buy and sell, so businesses will be severely hurt from this crisis.

It is clear that climate change is having a tremendous effect not only on marine wildlife, but also on our economy. 58 years might sound like many, but our time is now to make change. What do you think about this crisis?

Group of fish near the beach of Sharm El Naga

Is the Solution to Climate Change in your House? Ask Aloe Vera!

With temperatures rising each year, the future of our environment is in danger.JMP 4280 XR (48940003233) As the scientific issue of climate change has turned political and economic, limited action has occurred in a time where an immediate change is needed to reverse the effects of global warming. However, researchers from the Natural History Museum in Denmark and the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences are looking toward aloe vera as plants that may help fight this battle.

 

Such household succulents are renowned for their ability to go long durations of time without water; in other words, they survive periods of drought. TAloe vera 101hus, scientists recognize aloe vera as a teacher to ways plants may survive in a warming world. In aloe vera’s structure, hydrenchyma tissues in the aloe’s leaves, in conjunction with the plant’s overwhelming composition from carbohydrates, help aloe manage water in their system. Carbohydrates – comprised of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen – are organic compounds found in sugars and starches. In their complex (or polymer) form, polysaccharides may perform a structural function. Specifically, cellulose is a carbohydrate that comprises a plant’s cell walls.

 

The study relays how aloe vera plants adjust their cell walls when there is a lack of water (a drought) to help them survive. In extremely hot temperatures, the plants respond by folding their cell walls closer together. Here, the plant maximizes its resources for survival. Thus, the aloe may shrivel, ceasing its growth, and reallocate its energy/resources to root growth (from water in the soil). Conversely, when there is plentiful water and they become rehydrated, normal activity resumes as the aloe vera reverts to its original state.

 

Within the context of employing the aloe vera’s techniques in a real-world situation, the scientists’ experiment further aims to find a link between the composition of carbohydrates in these succulents and the folding of their cell walls. If a connection is discovered, theyEberndorf Gablern Maisfelder und Saualm im Hintergrund 18082015 6749 hope to utilize similar strategies in crops so they can survive periods where their environment may be hot and dry. I am hopeful that other plants can mimic the aloe’s techniques because crops and succulents share many similar qualities to aloe in their composition. Nonetheless, I also recognize this may take time and generations of crops to find a concrete solution. Though the implications of this study are not yet comprehensible, they hint that we may soon be a step closer to combatting climate change.

 

What do you think? Are the teachings of aloe vera a hopeless grasp at a solution to climate change or the pathway to our future?

Two Threats at Once: Climate Change and Racism.

What if you faced the burden of tackling two existential threats at once?

Global warming, or the increase in the earth’s atmospheric temperature caused by the release of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide, poses a threat to our planet’s life. Our actions as humans have exacerbated the planet’s dangerously warming temperatures, and in recent decades this human-caused threat has become prevalent in both political and social conversations. 

Dr. Ayana Elizabeth Johnson, a black female climate expert, is one such activist. A marine biologist, policy expert, and writer, Dr. Johnson founded Ocean Collectiv and Urban Ocean Lab, a social justice consulting firm and think tank, respectively, both of which foster change for environmental protection. Dr. Johnson focuses on ocean conservation, sustainable fishing, ocean zoning, and social justice. Her educational journey parallels her present career in environmental justice, for  Johnson received a Bachelor of Arts degree in environmental science and public policy from Harvard University and later earned a Ph.D. in marine biology from Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Reefs, ecosystems that are both critical for biodiversity and sensitive to rising water temperatures and acidity, are experiencing degradation from unsustainable fishing practices and increasing carbon emissions. Most coral contains zooxanthellae, photosynthetic algae. In a mutualistic relationship, the algae are protected by the coral, and the algae’s release of oxygen from the oxidation of water during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis helps remove the coral’s waste. It is the algae that give the coral their beautiful colors, so when they face unideal temperatures and ph levels from climate change, the coral is left vulnerable and bleached. Dr. Johnson has focused intensely on sustainable management of coral reef resources, which involves pinpointing and solving the environmental causes that destroy coral reefs. During her impactful career, Dr. Johnson has conducted research on Caribbean coral reef trap fisheries and on the impacts of climate change on small islands, whose people experience the most consequences from coral degradation, such as having fewer food resources. Furthermore, she has led the Caribbean’s first successful ocean zoning project, which has aimed to protect vulnerable ocean areas. Her podcast How to Save a Planet and her book All We Can Save have shed light on these tough conversations about climate change. 

Despite Dr. Johnson’s impressive career and achievements regarding environmental protection, she has faced deterrence from racism in society. In her passionate and alarming article in the Washington Post titled “I’m a black climate expert. Racism derails our efforts to save the planet,” Dr. Johnson exposes the way racism has prevented black climate activists from achieving their goals. She shows the intersection between climate change and race. Laying out clear data that “black Americans are disproportionately more likely than whites to be concerned about — and affected by — the climate crisis,” Dr. Johnson explains how the effects of climate change are not just environmental, but also racially consequential. “Black neighborhoods” are more affected by “fossil-fueled power plants” and “poor air quality.” Despite Dr. Johnson’s passions to solve such pressings climate issues and focus “all” her “attention on climate,” she has been preoccupied with simply justifying “her existence.” In the midst of a civil rights awakening, issues of police brutality towards people of color and systemic racism have been exposed and examined through a critical race lens. While Dr. Johnson works “on one existential crisis,” she “can’t concentrate because of another.” She draws this connection between racism and climate change to show her readers their intersection the similar toll they take on the world. In her last paragraph, Dr. Johnson uses a direct address to urge her white audiences to become “anti-racist,” which is the only way to help fix the issue of climate change, as the two are “intertwined.”  

Dr. Ayana Elizabeth Johnson’s passionate sentiments about racial and environmental justice are not isolated, for young people, including myself, are ready to change our planet and society for the better. Environmental justice requires racial justice, and my generation will be the change we want to see.

Dr. Warren Washington changed the trajectory of Climate Change Research

Dr. Warren M. Washington is one of the world’s most influential climate scientists.

Born in 1936, in Portland, Oregon, Washington grew up interested in science from a very young age. He went on to earn a bachelor’s degree in physics and a master’s degree in meteorology from Oregon State University, and then his doctorate in meteorology from Pennsylvania State University. In 1963, he joined NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) as a research scientist.

During his first few years at NCAR, Washington helped create one of the first computer models to examine the earth’s climate. In the past, scientists merely theorized about and observed the weather to make predictions. However, Washington has said that this new model “shows the basic change of seasons, the change of day/night, temperature and winds.” It also helps make long-term projections about future weather patterns by collecting and graphing weather data. This climate model also contributed to the massive rise in awareness of climate change.

Dr. Washington told Business Insider in a 2019 interview, “Keep in mind that we’re the first generation that sees climate change in human history.” “Most climate change has been us going in and out of ice ages over thousands of years. Now we’re seeing things happen over tens of years.” The rapid climate change allowed for a lot of weather data to be had, which Washington and his team used in the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report. This data ultimately determined that the increase in industrialization and technology has directly impacted our environment. Though this discovery may appear obvious in hindsight, this was a groundbreaking revelation at the time that led Dr. Washington and his team to the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. 

This image depicts some of the aspects of climate change that have occurred due to humans. Our “human fingerprints” have resulted in global warming, more fossil fuels in the ocean and air, and much more. I often get caught up in the misconception that climate change is not just global warming but so much more.

One very significant development that came from this model was the ability to study hurricanes and how they have changed over time. Washington’s computer model helped him discover a positive feedback loop between the warming ocean and atmospheric temperatures, creating a greater hurricane strength. A positive feedback loop is one that brings something further away from its target setpoint. In this case, as industrialization and the advancement of technology continue to allow greenhouse gases to warm up the atmosphere and the ocean, the rising heat of the ocean causes stronger hurricanes. Because the sea continues to get hotter, the storms continue to grow stronger, bringing the hurricane strength further and further from its target set point. The other type of feedback loop is a negative feedback loop, where a feedback loop brings something closer to its target set point. An example of this would be how humans regulate their body temperature by shivering or sweating to heat up or cool down, respectively. 

Throughout his career, Warren Washington has even gone on to earn the National Medal of Science by Barack Obama, served on commissions for climate change, became the president of the American Meteorological Society. In 2020, at 83 years old, he won the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement. 

Not only does Washington’s model continue to be one of the most innovative and influential models in climate change studies, but he continues to be a role model for generations of students regardless of their background. Washington has mentored many students to pursue a science career through the NCAR SOARS program (Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science). In 1999, Washington even won the Dr. Charles Anderson Award from the American Meteorological Society for mentoring and fostering a diverse and passionate community of young scientists toward success. 

Washington is just one of many Black scientists who has curated innovative inventions that will benefit us for centuries to come. I find it fascinating that without his innovative research of climate change, the way we view our own effects on the world could be entirely different, possibly leading the climate to be even more extreme than it already is.

Meaningful Momentum or Mirage? The True Effect of The Covid-19 Pandemic on Our Environment – and How We Must Move Forward

During a time where everyone is forced to self-isolate inside, it may not feel very natural to think about the environment in which we live. However, the Covid-19 pandemic has certainly affected the great outdoors for the better and (if reports are to be believed) the worse.

At first glance, it would be entirely logical to conclude that a decrease in travel and industrial production would lead to a significant boost in the health of the environment. According to the NIH, “the global disruption caused by […] COVID-19 has brought about several effects on the environment and climate. Due to movement restriction and a significant slowdown of social and economic activities, air quality has improved in many cities with a reduction in water pollution in different parts of the world,” therefore allowing many governments to gain more momentum in their strides against climate change.

However, this positive sentiment is not shared by many high-ranking officials of NASA, who believe that the pandemic has put a pause on necessary procedures that served to improve our environment. As a result of social distancing and quarantine mandates, there “are far fewer intentional fires to boost biodiversity [the level of variety of life on Earth] and reduce fuel loads in the Southeast.” The lack of these fires is suspected to have impacted the region’s biodiversity by both eliminating habitats for eukaryotic organisms (organisms with nuclei) who thrive in fiery environments and polluting prokaryotic organisms (organisms without nuclei) with fuel (according to Ben Poulter, a research scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center). Moreover, the positive effects of the pandemic on the environment may not even be sustainable. Per National Geographic, “daily global carbon emissions were down by 17 percent compared to last year [before the pandemic]. But as of June 11, new data show that they are only about 5 percent lower than at the same point in 2019, even though normal activity has not yet fully restarted.” This spike in carbon emissions could be due to both the government “favors” (such as tax breaks, regulatory rollbacks, and cash loans) offered to high-polluting industries in order to help them stay afloat during the pandemic and the fact that the lax quarantine restrictions in place have not been very effective in keeping people off of the road and in their homes. When these two developments are taken into account, the state of our world during the pandemic looks rather grim.

The theory that the so-called “improvement” in our environment’s health may be very short lived is also supported by data concerning former Covid-19 patients. A new study discussed by Healthline reveals that “people who recover from even mild cases of COVID-19 produce antibodies that are believed to protect against infection for at least 5 to 7 months, and could last much longer” (For context, antibodies are blood proteins produced by Plasma B Cells that combat viruses that invade the body. The production of antibodies is part of the body’s Humoral Immune response.). While this is great news for healthcare workers who must deal with the disease firsthand, it has dangerous implications for former Covid-19 patients who may use their newfound “immunity” to resume life as normal, which could undo the minimal environmental progress that our country has made.

Despite this backslide, it is still possible to ameliorate the damage done to the environment after the pandemic ends. The chief editors of Scientific American argue that while the pandemic has “barely made a dent in climate change,” our environmental plight has shown us a way forward: using our newfound free time to fight for justice and equality for marginalized groups that are disproportionately affected by the pandemic. “The pandemic has not only aggravated the stark inequities and injustices [against minorities], [but] the mass unemployment it has generated has also given millions of Americans the motivation and opportunity to express their outrage. Their impassioned protests against systemic racism may be essential to moving the U.S. to a more equitable and sustainable future. Change is in the air.” While it may appear unorthodox to equate climate change activism with social justice advocacy, it’s entirely possible that they’re one and the same, as evidenced by the social and environmental reforms proposed by the Green New Deal. Consolidating these two fights against the exploitations of nature and humans may prove to be a viable path forward in the coming months.

Overall, while it’s possible that the pandemic’s improvement of our environment was a false mirage, we can make that imagined progress real by campaigning for all forms of justice, whether it’s environmental or societal.

The Climate of COVID-19

COVID-19 has opened the door for speculations about the trajectory of climate change. Although initially I would have expected the pandemic to solely have beneficial impacts on climate change, there are plenty of negative developments as well.

The pandemic decreased in transportation and industrial activity leading to a 17 percent drop in daily global carbon emissions in April. But…

“CO2 levels in the atmosphere reached their highest monthly average ever recorded in May — 417.1 parts per million. This is because the carbon dioxide humans have already emitted can remain in the atmosphere for a hundred years; some of it could last tens of thousands of years.”

Some long term issues COVID-19 may cause in terms of climate change include…

Amazon Deforestation:  The Amazon rainforest absorbs two billion tons of CO2 from the atmosphere a year and is one of the most effective ways of mitigating carbon in the atmosphere. While Brazil was focusing on controlling the virus, illegal loggers were taking advantage of the forest: 464 square miles of the rainforest was destroyed. 

Climate policies: Countries and companies are inclined to delay or cancel investments in climate action policies if their income has been impacted by the pandemic. 

For example, President Trump has weakened the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to speed construction permits. 

Scientific research: Quarantine and travel bans have restricted scientists from traveling to do their fieldwork, and there’s a limit to how much can be accomplished with data and computers alone. 

COVID-19 may result in an approximately five to eight percent reduction in average global emissions for the year, and while this is a small amount in the context of the whole system, it offers a rare opportunity to see how Earth responds to cuts on carbon emissions.“

Plastic: COVID-19 has increased the need for plastic gloves and masks, and plexiglass dividers in public spaces.

This results in more litter, particularly gloves and masks. Covid related waste is already washing up on shores around the world. The use of plastic packaging and bags has soared because restaurants rely on take-out and delivery food. Ordering all sorts of other items online has also resulted in more packaging materials, increasing the carbon footprint of e-commerce. 

More cars: The CDC has urged companies to offer incentives to encourage people to ride or drive alone to minimize contact with others. These guidelines are prompting more individual car use, which will cause traffic congestion and air pollution, and increase greenhouse gas emissions. Also, people are moving out of cities and to suburbs which result in more driving. 

Looking at the positive climate outcomes of the pandemic…

Green recovery: “The European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union, has put forth the world’s greenest stimulus plan — a 750 billion euro ($825 billion) economic recovery plan with the goal for the EU to be carbon neutral by 2050.”

The U.S. Treasury Department has given renewable energy projects more time to take advantage of tax credits.

Transportation: To give alternatives to public transportation, cities have closed off streets for pedestrians and increased bike lanes.

Travel: Transportation is responsible for 23% of global carbon emissions, with 11% of it’s greenhouse gas emissions due to aviation. The decrease in international air travel due to COVID-19 has reduced CO2 emissions.

With people working from home, there will continue to be less international business travel. International trade may also decrease as countries recognize the need to produce more goods domestically.

Living simply: The pandemic has restricted eating out, also restricting the processing, packaging and transporting of food that add to our carbon footprint. More people may be trying to eat less meat, eat more locally or grow a garden, and stay away from processed foods to maintain a healthier immune system. With the scary reality of empty shelves in stores at the beginning of the pandemic, there is a lasting inclination to not waste food. 

In AP Bio class, we recently learned about the internal effects of eating unhealthy, even comparing two lifestyles in a lab. We found that a person’s food choices directly correlate with the demand for insulin. When a person eats more unhealthy food, they gain more glucose than they would eating healthy food as seen in the chart. When a person had two unhealthy meals they gained 40 glucose and used 18 insulin while when they had two healthy meals they gained 20 glucose and only used 8 insulin. They have to regulate the glucose in their body much more when they eat unhealthy rather than when they eat healthy. In learning about the immune system,  in order for the system to protect the body from pathogens, cellular defenses benefits from healthy cells. The different systems of the body are all connected, when you eat healthy, it benefits your systems at a cellular level.

There has been a drop in the production of consumer goods which contribute to climate change with raw materials extraction, processing, logistics, retail and storage. 

With “normal” sources of daily entertainment shut down, people have been spending more time in nature, potentially growing an appreciation for nature. Hopefully people will protect and care more for the environment.

Warmer Winters, Less Lake Ice

 

Royalty-Free photo: Ice, glacier, frozen, cold, glacial ice, air inclusions | PickPik

Crystalline Lattice Ice

An article written in the ScienceDaily explores recent concerning data: due to climate change, lakes in the Northern Hemisphere are experiencing “more ice-free years.” You may be wondering—well, why does the amount of ice on a lake matter? The dwindling ice on our Earth’s lakes is not only a wake up call for our climate sensitive present and future, but also an indication of the detrimental ecological, cultural, and economic impacts of climate change.

I used to take ice for granted; now I understand why it is truly a unique thing. Water is one of the only substances that is less dense as a solid than as a liquid. This phenomenon is due to its hydrogen bonding. As temperatures fall below 4 degrees celsius, water molecules move too slowly to break these hydrogen bonds. As a result, the molecules are able to form a crystalline lattice, making the most amount of hydrogen bonds possible, 4. This property is crucial for life under ice to exist on earth, and therefore, crucial to the balance of all life on earth. Now, with a changing climate, ice is at risk. 

In a recent study, researchers analyzed 80 years of lake ice data from 1939-2016. Focusing on 122 lakes that have historically froze every winter, the researchers concluded that ice-free years for these lakes were 3 times more frequent since 1978. This trend is highly correlated with abnormally warm winters, and it will continue to increase as the earth warms at higher rates. 

The absence of ice on these lakes has various implications. Communities around the lakes that have traditionally depended on lake ice for ice fishing and ice festivals during the winter are paying the consequences. In addition to economic and cultural impacts, there are also ecological implications. The lakes are warmer in years without ice, and, as a result, they stratify earlier. The formation of distinct thermal layers increases the lake’s susceptibility to toxic algal blooms, which can be harmful to marine life and to people. 

File:Algal bloom(akasio) by Noctiluca in Nagasaki.jpg

Toxic Algal Blooms

 The authors noticed that this warming trend was not unique to a specific location of lakes, but rather, applicable to a broader region of Earth’s lakes. In a new study, researcher Filazzola and his colleagues looked through a broader geological lens to understand how the frequency of ice-free lakes has changed over time. They gathered consistent historical and modern data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) for 122 lakes in North America, Europe, and Asia. Some of the oldest data collected was from 1443 about Lake Suwa, located in Japan. At this historic lake, the researchers collected impressive documentation from 15 generations of priests, who have always regarded the lake’s ice with “celebration.” Again, this demonstrates the cultural significance that lake ice holds in many communities. 

File:180205 Lake Suwa omiwatari 03.jpg

Lake Suwa, Japan 

Overall, Filazzola and his colleagues concluded that there is a correlation between air temperatures/climate cycles and increasingly “ice-free years,” which they defined as a lake not having “100%” of ice coverage “for at least one day.” Their data clearly demonstrated that lake warming is more prevalent in the last 40 years than in the last 80 years. One of the researchers, Sharma, even called the growing absence of ice as “not normal” and “a historical snapshot to understand that the climate is changing.”

As a 17 year old in today’s world, I feel very strongly about earth’s changing climate and its negative effects for our future. While the subject has become politicized in the United States due to certain industrialist economic beliefs, our changing climate is indeed pressing and sensitive. It is our duty as stewards to protect the planet and to moderate its changing climate.

This World Is On Fire

Perhaps the most striking and recent example of the extreme effects of climate change is the massive wildfires raging through Australia that continue to burn as I write this very article. Though the fact that this will only get worse as the effects of climate change escalate seems cause for hopeless nihilism, it should actually serve as the opposite: a desperate call to arms to prevent this from happening.

In order to understand why these fires can destroy at such a large scale, it is crucial to look to the source of these fires — drought through the Indian Ocean Dipole. Fires become much more destructive during a drought not just because of a lack of rain, but also because dead foliage makes it much easier for fire to spread. When put into conjunction with the lack of rain, these wildfires become an almost never-ending cycle of devastation due to the sheer scale of the fires. “Sustained changes in the difference between sea surface temperatures of the tropical western and eastern Indian Ocean are known as the Indian Ocean Dipole or IOD” (Australia Bureau of Metereology). In its positive phases, water moves away from Australia and to Africa and the temperatures rise in Australia. The positive phases of the Indian Ocean Dipole directly influence and have influenced wildfires, as “every major bushfire was preceded by [a positive ocean dipole]” and these positive phases are likely to grow threefold by 2100.

Although the current wildfire sets records for its scale and impact, the emphasis of this event should be on what we can now do with this information. The article directly points to the limit of carbon/greenhouse emissions as an efficient method of controlling the Indian Ocean Dipole. Above simply a horrible event for the environment, this fire has taken and continues to take the lives and homes of animals and people. The effects of climate change always affects those who cannot protect themselves: those without the resources to recreate their lives, those animals who cannot adapt to human-caused disasters, those entire biomes set years behind due to wildfires. Climate change is a human issue.

Human Disruption: Main Cause of Climate Change

 

Live Science, in a recent article about climate change, claims that according to a report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, there are many significant impacts that have occurred on our precious planet. Marine life overheating as it grasps for oxygen in warming oceans, rising seas swallowing islands and coastal areas, storms growing and causing flooding, coral reefs dying, rare species going extinct, are just some of the events that have occurred due to climate change. These are now used as a wake up call, implying that there’s far worse to come if we do not control human-driven climate disruption. 

The Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate presents its latest evidence that climate change is already underway and we are “on thin ice and running out of time to act,” said Bruce Stein, chief scientist for the National Wildlife Federation (NWF).

One of the main causes of this climate change are fossil fuels. If the use of these fossil fuels isn’t reduced and if global warming continues, it could have a huge negative impact on both wildlife and humans. Researchers recently found more than 200 dead reindeer in Norway; they starved to death due to climate change, which disrupted their access to the plants they eat. After the precipitation froze, creating “tundra ice caps,” a thick layer of ice that prevented the reindeer from reaching vegetation in their usual winter grazing pastures. This forced them to dig pits in shoreline snow to find seaweed and kelp, which are less nutritious than the reindeer’s usual fare.

In addition, there are several other effects that human activity has had on the environment. According to the IPCC report, 50% of the coastal wetlands have been lost over the last 100 years due to the results of human pressures and extreme climate events. They predict that by 2100, seas could rise by more than three feet, which could result in the displacement of millions of people. They also predict that by 2050, marine heat waves will be 50 times more frequent and the uppermost ocean zones could lose more than 3% of their oxygen, eliminating populations of marine animals and harming fisheries. Glaciers could be reduced by as much as 36%, affecting about 4 million people who live in the Arctic and around 670 million people who inhabit mountainous regions. The widespread loss of ice and snow could lead to water shortages, affect food security, and cause intense droughts and wildfires. Evidence has also suggested that warming oceans have caused an increase in tropical hurricanes according to the report. 

The Earth’s fate lies in our hands.  Debra Roberts, co-chair of the IPCC, says that we can control global warming if we create advances to all aspects of our societies, such as energy, land and ecosystems, urban and infrastructure, and industry. Roberts also suggests we must as early and decisively to avoid permanent changes and risks, all in an effort to improve our lives and achieve sustainability around the world. It will require “unprecedented” political actions to eliminate all the impacts that human-made carbon has created on our oceans. The youth are our strongest supporters to prevent the most severe consequences to our planet. 

 

Preserve Biodiversity & Save Lives

How elephants are crucial to cancer research

Over the course of the past few years intensive research has been done on elephants specifically on studying their cells. Elephant’s cells can play an extensive role in advancing cancer research for humans. You may be wondering why is this? How is an elephant’s cell so unique? Well elephants rarely get cancer. This may seem impossible since they weigh tons which means their cells are significantly bigger than a human sized cell, and they should be more prone to getting cancer. In addition, elephants have “hundreds of times the number of cells — and have similarly long natural lifespans — but their cells mutate, become cancerous, and kill them less frequently”. This peculiar trait is being studied by the ACE team, they have given it the name ‘Peto’s Paradox’ named for Richard Peto, a British epidemiologist.” Elephants make multiple copies of their genes, so if a mutation does occur in an elephant’s cell thus becoming cancerous “..instead of reproducing, just kill themselves.”

Researchers now are trying to work with human cells and see if this “cancer-fighting technique” used by elephants could lead to new medical treatments. Peto’s Paradox seems to work on every type of cancer that it was tried on. Which would really cut down on the time and money needed to study every form/type of cancer. If  Peto’s Paradox were to work on human cells on a bigger scale than just the “petri dish” used in this study more time could be devoted to just perfecting this technique in human cells and would for the first time ever be a revolutionary cure for every cancer known to man.  

Protecting Elephants

According to research African forest elephants help fight against climate change. There is a direct correlation between African forest elephant eating patterns and a reduction in carbon emissions released in their ecosystem. “African forest elephants need to eat 5-10 percent of their body weight (about 200-600 pounds) every day. They mostly feed on trees with lower wood density — leaving more room in the forest for the growth of high-wood-density trees that more efficiently absorb carbon in the environment, reported Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz from University of Nottingham.” Sadly, this species faces constant threats from poachers and the ever rising issue of deforestation. It’s essential to protect elephants and their habitats so they don’t go extinct. “[I]f African forest elephants go extinct, above-ground biomass — the organic materials such as trees that live above soil, essential to storing carbon — would decrease by 7 percent in Central Africa’s rainforests. Tropical forests can provide at least 30 percent of the mitigation needed to limit global warming, making their protection vital not only for the elephants’ diets and habitats, but for the planet.”

As mentioned earlier elephants rarely get cancer so if their species die off, so would the key to finding a cure for cancer in humans as many leading scientists believe. Elephants are virtually on the edge of extinction, their disappearance could have far-reaching effects for both public health and cancer research. As a result, scientists are trying to quickly gather as much data as they can while elephants are still here. However not all hope is lost. Conservation International is working hard to protect species such as elephants, the habitat they live in, and to help stabilize climates all around the world.

Warming Up This World

      The article,Oceans Are Warming Even Faster Than Previously Thought” by the University of Berkley adds to the ongoing conversation about global warming and our world’s future. This research expands on the idea that scientists must look at ocean temperatures in order to fully understand this phenomenon instead of using data that is susceptible to yearly changes like El Nino. Evidently, it was estimated that ninety-three percent of excess solar energy is in the world’s oceans, thanks to greenhouse gases.

     Models like the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 state that the temperature of the top two thousand meters of the ocean will rise .78 degrees Celsius by the end of the century. Thermal expansion, because of this rise in temperature, will cause sea levels to rise 12 inches without the addition of melting glaciers and ice sheets. In addition, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report accumulated that research models have shown that there has been a faster increase in the excess heat from the oceans. Moreover, around four thousand “diving robots” called Argo have been monitoring many of the oceans conditions like the temperature, pH, salinity as well as other data. Before this exciting new technology, most of the data was collected using a technology called expendable bathythermographs. However, this only collected data on water temperature only once. The updated research techniques use the atmosphere’s oxygen content to determine the speed of global warming while taking into consideration burning fossil fuels, of course. This is because warming oceans release oxygen.

     Overall, I believe the path that global warming scientists are beginning to explore is crucial to understand the necessary changes we must take to take care of planet earth. From this research, it is obvious that actions even as simple as recycling initiatives are crucial to reduce greenhouse gasses and hopefully prove the CMIP5 model and other models wrong by slowing down or even preventing global warming and climate change.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:WhereIsTheHeatOfGlobalWarming.svg

We Don’t Control the Weather…Microbes Do

Humans are continuing to alter the atmosphere by their activities and most human-induced methane comes from livestock and landfill.  But what people might not know is that micro-organisms have been doing this for billions of years.

Microbes are responsible for producing the methane. Microbes found in wetlands produce 160 million tons of methane a year and microbes that live in termites release 20 million tons.

Microbes also play a role in the amount of carbon absorbed and released from the atmosphere by the ocean, which is about 90 million tons a year. The combination of primary production and microbial decomposition on land leads to 120 billion tons of carbon taken in every year and 119 billion tons of carbon released.

Photo of climate change from Pixabay.

Dr. Reay claims, “The impact of these microbially-controlled cycles on future climate warming is potentially huge”. It is important to better understand these processes in order to take more carbon out of the atmosphere by using microbes in the sea as well as on land.

Picture of Cyanobacteria from Wikimedia Commons.

Bacteria can be used to catch methane that is released from landfill, Cyanobacteria could potentially provide us with hydrogen fuel, and plankton are continuing to become a feedstock for some biofuels. Either way, it is crucial to understand microbes in order to know whether they will help us to avoid climate change or will push us faster towards it.

 

 

 

Climate Concerns and Rising Sea Levels: Antarctic Edition

    Photo Source

   Climate change has been a recent concern as it affects all aspects of human life. More evidence to climate change and the rise of sea levels was expressed in a very recent study conducted by IMAS PhD student: Alessandro Silvano. By doing so, he ultimately found that this process quickens the rate that ice melts and sea levels rise.

The study was conducted using ocean measurements off the coast of east Antartica. The study showed that glaciers are freshening the ocean, as the glaciers do not consist of salt. This dilutes the natural salt content of the ocean. He found that the melted water from the glaciers causes the ocean’s surface layer less salty and more buoyant, which prevented deep mixing during the winter months. Therefore it allowed warm water to retain its heat and melt glaciers from below. This process allowed the water to exist in layers, similar to when one attempts to mix oil and water. The study found a positive feedback mechanism, in which glacial melt water caused further melting of ice shelves, leading to an increase in sea level.

In some areas around Antartica, the study also found fresh meltwater decreased the formation and sinking of dense water. This results in decreasing the rate of ocean circulation, which stores heat and carbon dioxide. Because the cold glacial melt waters cause a slowing of the currents, which then decrease the ocean’s ability to decrease carbon dioxide and heat from the atmosphere. These two processes feed off of each other and induce and speed up climate change.

I enjoyed reading this article because I am personally passionate about decreasing the rate of climate change and educating myself on global warming. Backing global climate change due to its concerning effect – only one of which is sea level – with scientific evidence is important for gaining support of our communities.

Secondary Source Article: The Washington Post: One of the most worrisome predictions about climate change may be coming true

280 Million Year Old Trees in Antarctica

Geologists have discovered 280 million year old tree fossils, which could be evidence of the oldest polar forest in Antarctica. The scientists had previously found 260 million year old tree fossil fragments, and returned to find out how a forest could have flourished there.

Credit: Erik Gulbranson

Professor Gulbranson, one of the geologists on the expedition, believes the trees must have been an extremely hearty species to survive, and “The trees could turn their growing cycles on and off like a light switch. We know the winter shut off happened right away, but we don’t know how active they were during the summertime and if they could force themselves into dormancy while it was still light out.” The polar forest grew at a latitude (geographic coordinate– location) where plants can no longer grow today, and they grew in nearly half a year of darkness and five months of continuous light. They were able to grow in these conditions because they grew during the Permian Period, where Antarctica was much warmer than today and part of Gondwana (A supercontinent which was part of Pangea).

One of the biggest challenges for the team was dating the trees. The trees could be 20 million years older or younger than their dated age of 280 million years because of the margin of error. They are still researching why polar ecosystems changed during the mass extinction at the end of the Permian period, but their current theory is that 90% of all species were wiped out because of higher global temperatures and ocean acidification. Professor Gulbranson believes his work could help understand the effects of contemporary climate change.

For more information click here.

Avenging Lamarck: The Epigenetics of a Fish

The laughingstock of biology classrooms everywhere, the footnote to Charles Darwin and his widely acclaimed theory of natural selection, the scientist who has caused many a biology student to stop and wonder why he or she should even know his name, Jean Baptiste Lamarck has gotten a bad rap among student’s across the country. Predicting that evolution in species resulted from individual species adapting to their environment and morphing their bodies to better survive and reproduce, passing their adapted traits to their offspring, Lamarck has been criticized by students everywhere for simply not being correct. However, he wasn’t entirely wrong. Recent research conducted in the Gulf of St. Lawerence off the Labrador Peninsula has revealed that skate fish  in the area have developed differences in terms of size from other skate fish because individual organisms are able to turn on and off select genes.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mottled_skate

The ability to turn on and off certain genes in organisms based on environmental conditions and pass those changes to offspring is called epigenetics. Epigenetics allows individual organisms to change their traits slightly to adapt to their environment. Where evolution by natural selection takes millions of years and results in the evolution of populations on a macro scale rather than individual organisms, epigenetic changes are much quicker.

Researchers were attracted to studying the winter skate fish in this bay because though the fish lies all along the North American coast, in this bay, the fish tends to be significantly smaller than other members of its species. Scientists attribute this to the warm water in this shallow water area which makes smaller organisms more likely to survive and reproduce.

However, DNA tests showed that significant changes in the genome of the fish weren’t what made them smaller, indicating it wasn’t Darwinian natural selection that dominated this process. The researchers discovered that the fish could turn on and off certain pieces of DNA in individual organisms to better adapt to the environment. Thus, the fish are able to adapt more quickly to changes in temperature than other organisms that rely solely on natural selection for changes to their traits.

Thus, Lamarck wasn’t entirely wrong all along (just mostly!).

The researchers hope this new information will help with conservation efforts and will give more insight into how species adapt to climate change.

So, do we owe Lamarck an apology? How can conservationists use this information to draw more interest to their goal?

Global Warming can alter the shape of the planet

Climate change is an element in our world which has been around for many years. It has been believed to cause warmer oceans and erratic weather, but a new study, according to scientists, declares it also has the potential to alter the shape of the planet we live in. Global Warming is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants. (read more about Global Warming) Michele Koppes,  assistant professor in the Department of Geography at the University of British Columbia, conducted a five year study in which she compared glaciers in Patagonia and in the Antarctic Peninsula. Koppes and her team discovered that glaciers in warmer Patagonia moved faster and caused more erosion than those in Antarctica, as warmer temperatures and melting ice helped lubricate the bed of the glaciers.

global warming

 Glaciers erode 100 to 1,000 times faster in Patagonia than they do in Antarctica.   “Antarctica is warming up, and as it moves to temperatures above 0 degrees Celsius, the glaciers are all going to start moving faster,” states Koppes. These ice sheets are apparently beginning  to move faster and should become more erosive. As a result, this will dig deeper valleys and shed more sediment into the oceans. The outcomes of this erosion add to the already complex effects of climate change in the polar regions.  “The polar continental margins in particular are hotspots of biodiversity, If you’re pumping out that much more sediment into the water, you’re changing the aquatic habitat,” Koppes states.  The Canadian Arctic, one of the most rapidly warming regions of the world, will most definitely feel these effects. These glaciers are on the verge of a major shift. The Canadian Arctic is becoming warmer in temperature more than four degrees Celsius spanning over the last 50 years. These glaciers will be flowing up to 100 times faster if the climate continues to shift and shifts above zero degrees Celsius. The findings by Koppes settle a scientific debate about when glaciers have the greatest impact on shaping landscapes and creating relief, suggesting that they do the most erosive work near the end of each cycle of glaciation, rather than at the peak of ice cover. If global warming continues to occur, change in formation of landscape due to higher water levels from melting glaciers is a strong possibility and may already be taking place. This will significantly affect all forms of life on earth.

 

Original Article:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151001142222.htm

Citations:

http://www.whoi.edu/main/topic/global-warming

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151001142222.htm

 

Lightning Expected to Increase by 50 Percent with Global Warming

Thunderstorm_over_Corfu

University of California Berkley scientist David Romps and his colleagues analyzed 11 different climate studies and concluded that changing climate will include increased lightning strikes. The studies, focusing on cloud buoyancy and precipitation, showed an increased amount of water vapor due to warming air. Water vapor is the fuel for for thunderstorms and explosive deep convection in the atmosphere, and with increased amounts in the atmosphere the frequency and ferocity of these storms will increase. Precipitation-the total amount of water hitting the ground in the form of rain, snow, hail, sleet, etc.- is essentially a measure of how conductive the atmosphere is.  Buoyancy is measured in the form of CAPE, convective available potential energy. This measures how potentially explosive the atmosphere is. Romps found that by analyzing these two factors he could accurately predict strength, frequency, and size of storms.

Article Link: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141113142112.htm

Useful Links:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thunderstorm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convective_available_potential_energy

Image Link:

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thunderstorm_over_Corfu.jpg

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