BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: medicine (Page 1 of 2)

The Common Misconception Around Antibiotics & New Findings

Gfp-medicine-container-and-medicine-tabletAntibiotics as a treatment are never fun – not only are you most likely dealing with a bacterial infection, but you need to take them on a strict cycle and can be quite aggressive on your stomach. I once had to go on antibiotics for treating a sinus infection, and it didn’t quite make me feel better after taking it. So after, I went on the same antibiotic, Cefuroxime, and took a higher dose, but I was not consistent in taking it and started feeling ill. This reaction was due to the antibiotics impact on the protective bacteria in my stomach’s microbiome. I soon learned more about the effects the antibiotics had on my stomach’s microbiome, and realized the common misconception around antibiotics – that they only benefit one’s health – and how some of the symbiotic relationships with bacteria in there are essential to digestion and immune protection. 

Biological overview

Antibiotics have been around since 1928 and help save millions of lives each year. Once antibiotics were introduced to treat infections that were to previously kill patients, the average human life expectancy jumped by eight years. Antibiotics are used to treat against a wide variety of bacterial infections, and are considered a wonder of modern medicine. However, they can harm the helpful bacteria that live in our gut.

The word antibiotic means “against life”, and they work just like that – antibiotics keep bacterial cells from copying themselves and reproducing. They are designed to target bacterial infections within (or on) the body. They do this through inhibiting the various essential processes we learned in Unit 1 about a bacterial cell: RNA/DNA synthesis, cell wall synthesis, and protein synthesis. Some antibiotics are highly specialized to be effective against certain bacteria, while others, known as broad-spectrum antibiotics, can attack a wide range of bacteria, including ones that are beneficial to us. Conversely, narrow spectrum antibiotics only impact specific microbes.

Antibiotic resistance mechanisms

The Human stomach is home to a diverse and intricate community of different microbial species- these include many viruses, bacteria, and even fungi. They are collectively referred to as the gut microbiome, and they affect our body from birth and throughout life by controlling the digestion of food, immune system, central nervous system, and other bodily processes. There are trillions of bacterial cells made of up about 1,000 different species of bacteria, each playing a different role in our bodies. It would be very difficult to live without this microbiome – they break down fiber to help produce short-chain fatty acids, which are good for gut health – they also help in controlling how our bodies respond to infection. Many antibiotics are known to inhibit the growth of a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. So, when the gut microbiome is interfered with using similar antibiotics, there is a high chance that the healthy and supportive microbes in our stomachs are targeted as well. Common side effects of collateral damage caused by antibiotics can be gastrointestinal problems or long-term health problems (such as metabolic, allergic, or immunological diseases). There is a lot of new research on the gut microbiome, some even suggesting that it impacts brain health by influencing the central nervous system. It is essential that we know more about how we can optimize its overall well-being.

New Research

Tackling the Collateral Damage to Our Health From Antibiotics

Researchers from the Maier lab EMBL Heidelberg at the University of Tübingen have substantially improved our understanding of antibiotics’ effects on gut microbiomes. They have analyzed the effects of 144 antibiotics on our most common gut microbes. The researchers determined how a given antibiotic would affect 27 different bacterial strains; they performed studies on more than 800 antibiotics.

The studies revealed that tetracyclines and macrolides – two commonly used antibiotic families – led to bacterial cell death, rather than just inhibiting reproduction. These antibiotic classes were considered to have bactericidal effects – meaning that it kills bacteria rather than just inhibiting their reproduction. The assumption that most antibiotics had only bacteriostatic effects was proven not to be true; about half of the gut microbes were killed upon being treated with several antibiotics, whereas the rest were just inhibited in their reproduction. 

These results expanded existing datasets on antibiotic spectra in gut bacterial species by 75%. When certain bacteria in the gut are dead, and others are not, there can exist an reduction of microflora diversity in the microbiota composition; this concept is referred to as dysbiosis. This can result in diarrhea, or even long term consequences such as food allergies or asthma. Luckily, the Researchers at EMBL Heidelberg have suggested a new approach to mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiome. They found that it would be possible to add a particular non-antibiotic drug to mask the negative effects the antibiotics had. The Researchers used a combination of antibiotic and non-antibiotic drug on a mouse and found that it mitigated the loss of particular gut microflora in the mouse gut. When in combination with several non-antibiotic drugs, the gut microbes could be saved. Additionally, they found that the combination used to rescue the microbes did not compromise the efficacy of the antibiotic.

It has been known for a while that antibiotics were impactful on gut microbiome, but its true extent had not been studied much until recently.  More time is needed to identify the optimal dosing and combinations, but the research coming from the Maier lab is very substantial as it fills in “major gaps in our understanding of which type of antibiotic affects which types of bacteria, and in what way,” said Nassos Typas, Senior Scientist at EMBL Heidelberg.

Healthcare Inequality Within the United States

The healthcare field, that is painted to be a blessing for many Americans, happens to also be a huge source of fear for many Americans as well. Throughout history, our healthcare system has shown to ignore and strike fear into specific groups of people. For this reason, through years of trauma and story telling, the fear of these same healthcare systems tend to be passed down as generations pass by. Many Americans then grow up with the constant fear of the healthcare system and seeking assistance when something alarming may appear.

According to CenterJD:

  • The Harvard Medical Practice Study found, “there were significant differences between hospitals that serve a predominantly minority population and other hospitals. That is, Blacks were more likely to be hospitalized at institutions with more AEs [adverse events] and higher rates of negligence.”
  • The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, a division of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, found, “Blacks received poorer quality of care than Whites in 43 percent of the core measures” and “disparities in quality and access to care are growing wider in the Hispanic population.”
  • Racial and ethnic minorities are uninsured more often than non-Hispanic Whites, a status that frequently results in less than adequate care.
    • A study by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation found that compared with the insured, those without health coverage who are hospitalized are more likely to receive fewer services, experience second-rate care, and die in the hospital.

Although this CenterJD post is from 2008, it puts into perspective how medical malpractice is not only a problem of the past during chaotic events such as WWI and WWII and how medical malpractice still very much affects our society today.

As Covid-19 is the modern issue at hand for most people in the United States, we often take into question who and how quickly is Covid-19 affecting people. Pasted below are statistics around Covid-19 in relation to race and ethnicity in America.

Evidently from the statistics given by the CDC, American Indian/Alaska Natives, Black/African Americans and Hispanic/Latino persons are way more likely to die and be hospitalized by Covid-19 than their White counterparts. This may be due to a multitude of reasons stated by the CDC. They claim that “Race and ethnicity are risk markers for other underlying conditions that affect health including socioeconomic status, access to health care, and exposure to the virus related to occupation, e.g., frontline, essential, and critical infrastructure workers.”

One very prominent example of this inequality in the healthcare field is Black women in America’s healthcare system. According to Black Women’s Health Imperative, “Black women are 3-4 times more likely to die from pregnancy-related complications and 3-4 times more likely to suffer from severe disability resulting from childbirth compared to White women.”  Black women are also much more likely to experience birth injuries and deaths due to other factors that are engraved in our societal structure. According to AJMC, When analyzing preterm birth numbers, it is evident that women living in areas of high violent crime and high air pollution that have the highest risk of preterm birth. “Black women are 4 times more likely to live in a neighborhood with high violent crime and high air pollution than White women,” which may partially explain why there is such a difference in the birth characteristics of these two groups.  Heather Burris, a current medical doctor, stated that “both physical and psychological stressors can lead to low birth weight and other health disparities” as well. This is why we must view these issues with historical context in mind. Discrimination and Racism, such as redlining, food deserts and many other forms of control by the American systems were used and ultimately affect the way that many Black Americans and other American groups function to this day.

According to Endofound, Health conditions that disproportionately affect Black women receive less government research funding than other similar diseases. They state that “estimates reveal that nearly a quarter of Black women between the ages of 18 and 30 have [uterine] fibroids — compared with 7 percent of White women. By age 35, that number increases to 60 percent. However, NIH annual funding for the condition is $17 million — compared to $86 million for cystic fibrosis, which impacts far fewer people each year (though the great majority of those impacted are Caucasian).” Cystic Fibrosis is a much rarer disease according to Cystic Fibrosis Foundation as there are around 70,000 currently living people worldwide with this condition. There are more than 200,000 cases of Uterine Fibrosis in the United States alone. Cystic Fibrosis appears to be much deadlier, however, the lack of funding in a department for an illness that is extremely common should be of concern. With more demand, more funding would seem like a plausible reaction, however, the current funding clearly shows otherwise.

 

As shown by the article’s data presented by Nature’s Alice B. Popejoy and Stephanie M. Fullerton, many racial and ethnic minority groups are still not present in genome wide association studies funded by the National Institute of Health. Popejoy and Fullerton state that “together, individuals of African and Latin American ancestry, Hispanic people (individuals descended from Spanish-speaking cultures in central or South America living in the United States) and native or indigenous peoples represent less than 4% of all samples analysed.” These numbers are ridiculous and makes it very hard for many people of color to feel as safe as their White counterparts, since there is significantly less statistical data that provides the same support and comfort in their own safety.

According to an article by Lauren Frayer, the NHS, which is the state funded company that funds health care for all in Britain, polls better than the queen, showing that British citizens are extremely fond of the system that is set in place to help all of its citizens. Richard Murray, a policy director for a health care think tank named the Kings Fund, says that it would be “electoral poison” for any political figure in the UK to advocate for privatizing the NHS. This feeling is mutual among many citizens of other countries with some form of universal health care as well. Many other countries such as Canada, Sweden, Spain and many more have very similar policies set in place to help aid citizens in getting better health care coverage. In a similar fashion the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in the United States made health insurance much more attainable for some citizens but also made more complications for others citizens as well. According to healthline, “more than 16 million Americans obtained health insurance coverage within the first 5 years of the ACA. A more affordable health insurance would help many groups such as the large amounts of people who live in high crime areas and high levels of poverty such as big cities like Chicago, Los Angeles and many other similar areas. Although our country is yet to promote policies that provide realistic health care policies for all, there is always room for change and progress as we try to become more united as a country.

Universal health care coverage can be achieved in a multitude of ways and this graphic by commonwealth fund displays methods of achieving the end goal of universal health care.

 

This is evidently a multi-faceted issue as the health care problems for many groups in America are not only caused by one specific source. Our country must start by fixing the issue of widespread poverty in our country because it directly correlates to so many problems within our country including health care inequality. We must use our resources to help build up and fortify the communities that are not properly funded nor given the opportunities as many of the wealthier communities in the United States due to this lack of funding and lack of emphasis to support these areas. Without proper steps towards building these communities and making health care a more realistic option, a large amount of the United States’ population will continue to suffer and struggle for years to follow.

Bias in Science: History, Representation, and Medicine

Science is not objective. Scientists may value fact, but they are still people too, influenced by identity and implicit and explicit biases in their research. Racism has pervaded every aspect of society since the country’s founding, and scientific institutions are no exception. From historical racist research practices to a modern reluctance to support Black Lives Matter or actively diversify the field, scientists have participated in and promoted racism for centuries. Scientists cannot claim objectivity now as an excuse to not be antiracist.

Throughout American history, unethical, racist research has contributed to scientific “progress”, but that is not regularly acknowledged. Although the past cannot be undone, fields should at least recognize the horrific means by which some research was done. For example, gynecology was borne of unethical experiments done on enslaved women and children. The “Tuskegee Experiment” withheld treatment of syphilis from hundreds of Black men just to see how the disease progressed. Henrietta Lacks, a Black woman with cervical cancer in 1951, had some cells taken from her tumor without being informed of this. The cells from her tumor, now known as HeLa cells, have been used since the 1950s for biomedical research. Since cancer is characterized by an improperly regulated cell cycle, with either too much cell growth or too little cell death, cancer cells can grow and divide excessively. This particular line of cells has been able to grow and divide endlessly, due to the presence of an active version of telomerase during cell division. This enzyme prevents the typical shortening of telomeres in cell division that leads to cell aging and death, making the cells “immortal” and the cell line usable to this day. Though they have been used in various research advances, her name was only connected to them in the 1970s. Her family, still with limited access to healthcare themselves, received no financial benefits and had no say in how the cells were used. Henrietta Lacks’ case is a more recent example of unethical research practices affecting Black people.

The questions scientists choose to study, whom they choose to include, and how they apply their results all bias research. Scientists of marginalized identities are much more likely to explore topics relevant to minority groups. So then, the lack of diversity among scientists also contributes to biased research priorities. In 2016, only 9% and 13.5% of science bachelors degrees were given to African Americans and Latinos respectively, and only 5% and 3.8% of doctoral degrees in science and engineering went to women and men from underrepresented minorities. Almost 70% of scientists and engineers employed full time are white. When issues like COVID-19 and climate change disproportionately affect marginalized groups, the lack of diverse representation can prevent representative research or solutions. Scientific institutions need to work on hiring and retention of Black, Latinx, and Indigenous scientists, in part by creating less hostile work environments and increasing DEI efforts.

The lack of diversity in clinical trials also decreases the inclusivity of science and medicine. Even though about 40% of Americans are nonwhite or Hispanic, the clinical trials for new drugs tend to have much whiter samples, with some having 80 to 90% white participants. Since these drugs will be used to treat all people, diverse samples are needed to determine the efficacy and side effects that can vary across ethnicity and sex. The 1993 National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act that required greater inclusion of women and minorities in NIH research samples did improve the proportion of female subjects, but not so much for minority groups. Even for diseases that disproportionately affect marginalized groups, those groups are grievously underrepresented in the clinical trials. 

One such disease is COVID-19. Even though the rates of infection, severity, and death are greater for Black, Latinx, and Indigenous Americans, these groups are underrepresented in clinical trials. Trials for drugs to treat COVID-19 did not accurately reflect the most affected populations at the research sites. Some studies also did not report the race and ethnicity of participants as required by the FDA. Remdesivir has shown to somewhat decrease recovery time, but since disease severity and outcomes are worse for minority groups, the benefits of improvement may not necessarily extend to them. This is why proportional representation of affected populations is so important in clinical trials for drugs.

One cause for lack of diversity in clinical trials is that minority groups can be unwilling or unable to take part, for reasons including fear of discrimination, lack of time or resources, inaccessibility of recruitment centers, language barriers, and fear of exploitation based in historical precedent. However, these barriers should be on the researchers to address, not on the marginalized groups. A possible solution could be to have the FDA enforce that drugs should be tested on samples that demographically reflect the populations that will be using them.

In the end, research institutions and scientists need to examine their biases in order to determine who they are serving, and then who they mean to serve. Efforts to increase diversity cannot be passive, but instead should involve active recruitment and work to eliminate the barriers in place. In an academic institution, that might mean a more inclusive work environment and better outreach and mentorship programs. For clinical trials, this could be reducing the financial burden of participation and building better relationships with minority communities that may have been hurt in the past. Science is meant to help people, so we need to be better moving forward, as well as acknowledge the damage scientists have done in the past.

I Have a Gut Feeling that Microbiomes Are the Next Step in Medicine

We as humans are a very genetically diverse species. But what if we could find microorganisms that have over 150 times more genes right within our own guts. Scientists believe that human microbiomes is the key to treating diseases in the future and some analysts believe that the field of human microbiome market will reach $3.2 billion by 2024.

Lack of microbiome diversity has shown to cause diseases like MS, diabetes, and asthma. So microbiomes have demonstrated themselves to be a key component of our health. To better understand these links, many projects launched in the past few years have focused on mapping microbial genesthat are associated with disease. For example, there are certain microbiomes that make cancer drugs ineffective whereas others are actually necessary to make these drugs work. Thus, a patient’s microbiome makeup directly correlates to their survival chances. So the next step in the Microbiome market is modifying the microbiome to work for the patient.

One older technique of doing this is traced back to China thousands of years ago where they would transplant whole microbial communities to treat diarrhea also known as Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT). A more defined approach is where beneficial bacterial strains are delivered, alive, to the patient’s gut.

In the UK, a company called Microbiotica transfers non-pathogenic strains of C. difficile to fight C. difficileinfections, IBD, and cancer. Even though these approaches have drawn a lot of attention to the field, some scientists argue that the bacteria we ingest are not as well adapted to living in our gut as those that have been living there for years thus are not effective.

In France, an opposite approach is used by Enterome where drugs target specific bacteria leaving the rest to the gut microbiome intact. This approach is aimed at treating Chron’s diseaseand cancer.

Another approach is using bacteriophages to kill specific bacteria strains. Eligo Bioscience takes it a step further by using the bacteriophages to deliver CRISPR/Cas9 into the bacteria to kill it by cutting the DNA of the strain carrying the disease only.

Finally, certain companies like Blue Turtle Bio engineer bacteria to make them produce drugs directly within the human gut.

Since this is a rather new field, there are newly emerging companies along with groups who do not believe in the practice. Personally, I do believe in this practice because there is already a strong correlation between our immune system and specific microbiome strands. With microbiome treatments comes microbiome diagnostics to determine which patients can benefit from these therapies. Thus a high number of approaches will initially fail to treat disease. So far, gut infections and inflammatory diseases seem to be strongly correlated to the gut microbiota, so that will be an area where more research should be applied.  A crucial challenge for the field will be to move from correlation to causation, and a lot of research is still needed for that.

 

What are Biofilms?

 

Biofilm being formed. (Pixnio)

Medicine has made great advancements in patient care and treatment over the last decade. However, everyday viruses and bacteria alike have become stronger and more resilient – even to the latest antibiotics. One such threat that has led to “…thousands of deaths…” in “…American Hospitals alone…” are biofilms. These bacterial cells “…gather [together] and develop structures that bond them in a gooey substance…” insulating them from the outside world. Biofilms ability to become impervious to antibiotics at a moment’s notice has led biologists to wonder both how they develop, and how to stop them.

To find out how and why these bacteria form biofilms, researchers at the Levchenko Lab, at Yale University, as well as from the University of California – San Diego, “…designed and built microfluidic devices and novel gels that housed uropathogenic E. coli cells, which are often the cause of urinary tract infections. These devices mimicked the environment inside human cells that host the invading bacteria during infections.” From this experiment, the scientist discovered that the bacteria would multiply until physical constraints inhibited them from further reproduction. At this point, the bacteria would become “stressed” and thus this “stress would induce the formation of a biofilm.

With the numerous mimicking devices that the researchers utilized in the experiment, they can now create many biofilms in predictable ways, and further analyze their behavior in similar environments. “This would allow for screening drugs that could potentially breach the protective layer of the biofilms and break it down.”  It is an amazing solution to a stubborn and persistent biological threat, that has already robbed enough, otherwise healthy, people of their lives.

It is imperative that we continue to make great strides in the advancement of medical technologies and treatments, as this will enable us to live healthier, more disease-free lives for the future to come. As viruses and bacteria get stronger, we need to make sure to keep up.

Sleep In for Heart Surgery!

Now if you’re on the operating table, likely passed out and opened up, its a fair bet that what time of day it is will have absolutely no importance to you. But maybe it should.

Recently, a study spanning over 6 years and conducted on over 600 patients, was based on recovering from heart surgery had noticed a strong correlation with time of day and rate/outcome of recovery.

These patients who underwent a heart valve replacement had shown an interesting relationship with a humans circadian rhythm. Those who underwent surgery in the afternoon had much better results and recovery than those in the morning. Additionally, in the following 500 days after the surgery, patients who were operated on during the afternoon were half as likely to have a major cardiac event such as myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack) or acute heart failure.

The team conducted a second study in which a total of 88 random patients were put into two groups, morning and afternoon. The results showed that those in the afternoon had lower levels of myocardial ischemia.

In a further examination of these findings in an attempt to find a cause, an article from Scientific American states, “The researchers isolated heart tissue samples from a subgroup of 30 patients from the randomized controlled trial. In laboratory tests, tissue from afternoon surgeries more quickly regained its ability to contract when researchers imitated the process of the heart refilling with blood as surgery concludes.”

While operating in the afternoon may have its benefits, doctors say that altogether abandoning surgery in the morning is simply out of the question. However, other practical applications of this are being studied, such as how it may affect cancer treatment in patients and whether or not circadian rhythm affects a variety of medical procedures. But until then, let the anesthesia kick in and enjoy the operation.

What do you think will be the next application of circadian rhythm or other anatomical and biological features?

Want to find out more? Sources below.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/2017/10/26/surgery-safer-afternoon-bodys-circadian-rhythm-study-suggests/

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-heart-surgery-may-be-better-in-the-afternoon/

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/heart-surgery-afternoon-morning-safety-post-illness-recovery-circadian-rhythm-body-clock-a8023736.html

Australian and PNG doctors and nurses performing surgery in Operation Open Heart. Port Moresby General Hospital, Papua New Guinea. Picture by Rocky Roe/AusAID

The First Ever Human Head Transplant

Exactly 200 years after Marry Shelley’s Frankenstein, neurosurgeon Sergio Canavero has announced that he will be performing the first ever human head transplant in 2017, until recent reports say that it will not take place until early 2018. However, this is not the first head transplant, as nearly 50 years ago a rhesus monkey was the first recipient of such an operation. Additionally, Canavero has found a partner for the operation, Xiaoping Ren, who states that he has practiced this on over 1,000 mice.

Until April 28th of 2017, our human guinea pig was 31 year old Russian man, Valery Spiridonov. He suffers from Werdnig-Hoffman disease, a form of muscular atrophy. However, the Italian neurosurgeon announced that Spiridonov will not be the head donor, but in his place a volunteer from China. Canavero stated the reason for this is due to the surgery taking place in China, and getting a Chinese donor is much more convenient/practical.

As for the procedure, the operation is said to take 36 hours. During these hours, the donor head and body will have to be cooled down to a temperature of -15˚C so the cells last more than a few minutes without oxygen. They will cut the tissue around the neck, having the major blood vessels linked by tiny tubes. Then, the spiral cord on both the head and body will be severed cleanly with an extremely sharp blade to minimize damage to the spinal cord. Finally, the head is ready to be connected. The two ends of the spinal cord will be fused with a chemical known as polyethylene glycol, a chemical used in certain medicines such as laxatives, but has been shown to act as a catalyst to the growth of spinal cord nerves. Following the connection of the muscles and blood vessels, the patient will be put into a coma for a month to decrease and limit any movement so that the electrodes can stimulate the spinal cord to grow and strengthen connections.

Sergio Canavero, Photo taken by 诗凯 陆 (@flickr)

As for the reaction to this so called “taboo-medicine”, the scientific community is not only skeptical but horrified as well. Many argue that the procedure is simply unethical and a twisted, gruesome form of medicine. However, Canavero states that it is simply giving a chance for paralyzed people to hopefully be able to walk and function on their own. What do you think of this? Is it unethical and taboo? Or is it an opportunity for progress?

For more information visit these sources:

http://www.alphr.com/science/1001145/human-head-transplant
http://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/human-head-transplant
http://www.newsweek.com/head-transplant-sergio-canavero-valery-spiridonov-china-2017-591772

Parents Take Warning: Antibiotics Can Be Harmful to Infants

Antibiotics are the marvel of modern medicine. They have brought about incredible medical advances, treating bacterial diseases and helping to prolong lifespans in modern times. But a new study conducted by researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Broad Institute has shined a light on the potential negative effects antibiotics can have on an infant’s health.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/herebedragons/2573487530

The study, conducted in partnership with a team of Finnish researchers, took monthly fecal samples from 39 children from birth until they were 36 months old and analyzed the sample using standard, RNA sequencing procedure to identify different microbes. During the study, 20 of the children had taken antibiotics for respiratory or ear infections ranging from 9 to 15 treatments over the course of the study. From this data, the researchers could analyze the diversity of the gut microbiome of these participants with respect to their antibiotic usage.

The researchers had chosen to analyze the effect antibiotics have on the gut microbiome in young children because of the pivotal role antibiotics appear to play in human health during early development. Low diversity in the early years of life of this collection of bacteria residing in the intestines has been linked to allergies and autoimmune diseases.

The results of this study show a decrease in the diversity of the microbial gut populations in infants who took antibiotics. This was even more pronounced when the infants were marked with a specific signature low in a bacteria known as Bacteriodes (this decrease in Bacteriodes has been speculated to be linked to Caesarean section births in the past but the researchers found this rationale to be inconclusive as well as another rationale that prolonged breastfeeding led to a stronger gut microbiome with higher levels of Bifidobacteria).

When the infants had taken antibiotics, a single strain of bacteria tended to rule their gut with only a few species surviving. On the whole, the gut microbiomes of these participants were less stable and had higher levels of antibiotic resistant genes.

Don’t get me wrong: antibiotics are an incredible innovation that has saved millions of lives. But, be careful in thinking they are a cure all. They’re side-effects might be more harmful than you think, especially in children.

How does this research change your perception of antibiotics?

 

Is There a Limit to How Old Humans Will Get?

In the 1900s, the life expectancy for humans in the United States was approximately 50 years. Since then, the age to which humans can live has only grown. In 1997, a woman by the name of Jeanne Calment died at the age of 122- an astounding increase from the life expectancy less than a hundred years ago. A new study written about in the New York Times explains that Dr. Vijg, an expert on aging at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, feels that we have now reached our “ceiling. From now on, this is it: Humans will never get older than 115.” Dr. Vijg and his graduate students published their pessimistic study in the journal Nature, presenting the evidence for their claim.

For their study, Dr. Vijg and his colleagues looked at how many people of varying ages were alive in a given year. Then they compared the figures from year to year, in order to calculate how fast the population grew at each age. For a while, it looked as though the fastest-growing group was constantly becoming older; “By the 1990s, the fastest growing group of Frenchwomen was the 102-year-olds. If that trend had continued, the fastest-growing group today might well be the 110-year-olds.” (NY Times Article). Instead, the increases slowed and eventually stopped, leading Dr. Vijg and his colleagues to conclude that humans have finally hit an upper limit to their longevity. Further research into the International Database of Longevity seemed to validate their findings; No one, except in rare cases like Ms. Calment, had lived beyond the age of 115. It appears as though human beings have hit the ceiling of longevity.

There was a varied mix of responses to the study. Some, like Leonard P. Guarente, a biology professor at MIT, praised it, saying “it confirms an intuition he has developed over decades of research on aging.” Others, like James W. Vaupel, the director of the Max-Planck Odense Center on the Biodemography of Aging, called the new study a travesty and said, “It is disheartening how many times the same mistake can be made in science and published in respectable journals.”

This study is by no means conclusive. It is simply one more piece of research in the ongoing debate over whether human beings will continue to live longer, and will continue to be debated by many experts in the field.

However, one must wonder whether living longer should be the goal. After all, as Dr. Vijg pointed out, “aging is the accumulation of damage to DNA and other molecules. Our bodies can slow the process by repairing some of this damage. But in the end, it’s too much to fix. At some point, everything goes wrong, and you collapse.” While morbid, he makes a valid observation: Humans can only go so long until necessary bodily functions begin to break down. Rather than worrying about whether we will live to an extraordinary age such as Ms. Calment, I concur with Dr. Vijg; the focus should be on living the most amount of healthy years and taking care of our bodies. While it may seem like a great idea to live to the age of 125, what good would that do if you aren’t able to continue with the activities you enjoy because your body is breaking down?

 

Other Relevant Articles:

In Depth Explanation of Longevity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Longevity

A brief summary of Dr. Vijg’s findings (a bit shorter than the NY Times article): http://www.newser.com/story/232121/human-lifespan-has-likely-maxed-out.html

An interesting article about an entrepreneur’s quest to make people live even longer: https://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/jan/11/-sp-live-forever-extend-life-calico-google-longevity

 

CRISPR/Cas9 Provides Promising Treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

There are nine kinds of muscular dystrophy and of these, Duchenne MD is the most common severe form of childhood MD. It affects about 1 in 5000 newborn males, only in very rare cases has it affected females. DMD is a genetic disorder that causes progressive muscle degeneration and weakness. Patients usually die by age 30 to 40.

DMD is caused by the absence of a protein, dystrophin, that helps keep muscle cells intact. In 1986 it was discovered that there was a gene on the X chromosome that, when mutated, lead to DMD. Later, researchers discovered that the protein associated with this gene was dystrophin. From this information, we can tell that this disorder is sex-linked, which explains why women are mainly carriers.

No one has found an absolute cure for this genetic disorder until now. Even in recent years, people have discovered treatments that will make patients’ lives more bearable, but never reverse the disorder. As a result of these advances, mostly in cardiac and respiratory care, patients are able to live past teen year and as long as in to their fifties, though this is rare. Although there are still drugs being tested like Vamorolone (a “dissociative steroid,” is an anti-inflammatory compound), more treatments on the molecular level are now being considered. However, thanks to recent discoveries and research with the new genetic technology, CRISPR/ Cas9, scientists may have found a treatment for DMD.

This new approach to gene correction by genome editing has shown promise in studies recently. This particular correction can be achieved in a couple ways: one is by skipping exon 51 of the DMD gene using eterplirsen (a morpholino-based oligonucleotide). Studies over four years show prolonged movement abilities, and a change in the rate of decline compared to controls. The newest approach to gene correction using CRISPR/Cas9, which the article I’m writing about focuses on, was performed in this study as next described: the CRISPR/Cas9 system targets the point mutation in exon 23 of the mdx mouse that creates a premature stop codon and serves as a representative model of DMD. Multiple studies in three separate laboratories have provided a path and laid the groundwork for clinical translation addressing many of the critical questions that have been raised regarding this system. The labs also discovered by further demonstrations, that this is a feasible treatment for humans. Functional recovery was demonstrated in the mice, including grip strength, and improved force generation- all of which are very important and hopeful discoveries. It is estimated from these studies that this new method will pass clinical trials and go on to benefit as many as 80% of DMD sufferers. Even greater success rates are expected if this is performed in young and newborn DMD patients.

What a Smelly Solution to a Smelly Predicament!!!!

The newest developments in scientific and medical research have been focused around a rather smelly purpose.

Fecal transplants are all the rage… and yes, it is what is sounds like. A fecal transplant occurs when the feces of a healthy donor are surgically transplanted into the colon of an individual who has various imbalances in the bacterial assortment of their gut. The feces with a healthy bacteria levels pass through the colon of the sick individual, replacing their “bad bacteria” with “good bacteria”, restoring the bacterial balances back to the way they should be.

Poop

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Poop.jpeg

You may ask yourself, why can’t you just take some antibiotics to kill the dominating bacteria and even things out?

Well the problem is just that. Bacterial imbalances are usually caused by antibiotic use that kill one type of bacteria and not another, so taking more antibiotics on top of that would just add to the problem.

The transplant of fecal matter is an icky procedure but has shown to cure many more ailments other than JUST bacterial imbalances. Fecal transplants have showed to help various metabolic diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergic disorders, and even tumors.

E coli Ag Res Mag

E. Coli. – one of the most common bacterias in not only your colon, but also your whole body, is a key player in the Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

One specific study of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) in metabolic syndromes, mixed microbiota from the feces of a lean donor with a sample of unhealthy, self-collected feces. After the mixed feces were then reinserted into the gut, the resultant excrement of the patient displayed increased insulin sensitivity and increased number of healthy butyrate-producing intestinal bacteria. In a sense, the resultant doo doo showed signs of improved health for the patient. Another report of FMT displayed favorable outcomes in abating the effects of:

  • Parkinson’s disease – a progressive disorder of the nervous system that negatively affects movement
  • Multiple Sclerosis – an autoimmune nervous system disease in which the human immune system attacks the central nervous system
  • Myoclonus Dystonia – a nervous and musculoskeletal disorder that results in involuntary and spontaneous muscle twitching and jerking
  • Chronic fatigue Syndrome – a cerebral disorder in which the brain excretes neurotransmitters that transmit the information to feel tired and fatigued. Can be extremely dangerous when mixed with everyday activities such as cooking and driving.
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura – a vascular disorder that results in excessive bleeding, internal hemorrhaging, and bruising from low levels of blood platelets.

While many think that poop is simply waste that ought to be disposed of immediately, the beneficial effects that Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) have spread all over the body. From regulating the bacterial levels in the colon, to helping alleviate the symptoms of various autoimmune, vascular, muscular, nervous, and skeletal diseases.

Who would’ve thought that putting poop BACK into the colon would be a healthy thing to do!?!?!

Original Article: http://phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2015/06/22/fmt-film/

Funny, yet extremely informative, animation and additional article: http://www.openbiome.org/about-fmt/

 

Asthma From The Gut

Asthma is a a disease without a cure. Unfortunately, it is spreading rapidly throughout the world.  With asthma, a person’s lungs do not function normally, and the lungs are a key part of the immune system.Asthma is related to a hyperactive immune system, a system that is gut-centric. Since it can not be cured, the best we can currently do is try to identify it’s causes. This can be very challenging and scientists do not know much about the bacteria inside of us. Being gut-centric implies a direct relationship between the gut microbiome and the immune system.

Asthma Inhaler

Image courtesy of NIAID on Flickr

Recently, a team of scientists proved this direct relationship. Their study discovered that the abundance of FLVR bacterium in a baby’s gut can affect their likelihood of being diagnosed with asthma. The study showed how Canadian children with low levels of FLVR in their feces when they were three months old proved much more likely to get asthma. By the time they reach age one most kids have the same levels of FLVR, this shows how key the timing is. The study then provided mice with extra FLVR, and tried to induce asthma. But, instead of getting inflamed lungs, the mice continued to breathe normally. This displays a potential solution. Scientists now believe that in those first three months of life, FLVR is necessary to properly train the immune system.

I chose to do this study because asthma is a disease that rapidly affects more and more people. The study, discovering a new cause of asthma holds promise. This suggests a possible future cure for asthma. If scientists can use antibiotics to perhaps enhance the levels of FLVR in the early days of children’s lives, perhaps asthma can be cured. This study of the different types of bacteria in the immune system is especially interesting due to our unit on the structure of different types of cells. Learning about the greater, medical application of this particular type of bacteria is especially fascinating. Please feel free to comment below with any thoughts or questions you have regarding this topic.

The original article can be found here. 

Cells Kill Cells—New Cancer Treatment Promotes Immune System response to Tumors

According to a recent article, oncological research has been a recent area of vast development. Cancer is a widespread form of disease that affects different areas uniquely and operates very subjectively. On a basic level, cancer is the uncontrolled growth and division of a cell.  This often yields a malignant tumor which can metastasize to other areas of the body.  When a tumor metastasizes and spreads beyond the primary site to other organs of the body, the cancer is considered to be Stage IV.  This is the most aggressive stage of cancer development and is often the most difficult to treat.  The new treatment revealed by Cornell University Engineers seeks to inhibit a tumor’s ability to metastasize.

https://flic.kr/p/xuSZkh

Killer T Cells attacking a cancerous cell

https://flic.kr/p/xuSZkh 

 

The paper explained the new approach in “annihilating” the tumors before they progress to a metastatic stage.  The key to this is not actually killing the cell, rather, inducing apoptosis of the cancerous cell.  Without the jargon, it means that the new treatment will not explicitly kill the cell, instead it will cause the cell to kill itself. The engineers accomplished this in model organism trials using mice.  The procedure involves injecting specialized liposomes in the lymph nodes, which commonly play a key role in metastasis.  The lymph nodes are parts of the lymphatic system where lymphocytes are formed. Lymphocytes are known as “killer cells” because they are a form of leukocytes (white blood cells).  The injection contains liposomes (membranous sacs of water) with a special “Tumor necrosis factor Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand” protein.  These will attach to the lymphocytes and target the cancerous cells, and effectively eliminate the tumor before it metastasizes.

The paper also references previous work by the engineering group where they created a similar approach for eliminating bloodstream metastases in January 2014.  This coupled with a lymphatic treatment can greatly reduce the rate of metastasis in patients with aggressive malignant tumors.  Recent developments in oncological treatments have suggested promising developments in the way of cancer treatments–and cures.

Img. Source

Original Article

Attention all penicillin-allergy victims, you might not actually be penicillin-allergic!

USMC-100209-M-1998T-001

Photo of antibiotics (licensing information here)

I am someone who is allergic to penicillin, amoxicillin, and a bunch of other “cillins”. So, when being prescribed with antibiotics, penicillin is always ruled out as an option for treatment. However, new findings at the American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (ACAAI) show that people, like me, who were told after a single allergic reaction to penicillin that they were penicillin-allergic, may not be penicillin-allergic after all!

At the Annual Scientific Meeting at the ACAAI, a study was presented where 15 students who were supposedly penicillin-allergic tested negative for a penicillin allergy and were in fact treated with intravenous penicillin medication multiple times. Dr. David Khan and Dr. Roland Solensky, both allergists, are both majorly involved in this research. They each stated that people who are found allergic to a medication such as penicillin are then prescribed with more expensive and dangerous medications to take the place of the medication they are allergic to. In fact, almost 10% of Americans are labeled penicillin-allergic and have no choice but to use more complex medications, when they might not even be allergic to a simpler medication, such as penicillin, in the first place!

To attempt to resolve this problem, Dr. Solensky is going to present “Drug allergy: options beyond avoidance” at the next Annual Meeting at the ACAAI. This presentation is designed to discuss different treatment options for patients suffering from allergies to certain medications, as well as patients who were told they are allergic to medications that they are in fact not allergic to. Dr. Khan encourages everyone who is penicillin-allergic to get tested and see if penicillin is a medication they should actually avoid or if the allergic reaction they once had to penicillin was a fluke. This study can help people avoid medications that are overly expensive or that can be dangerous, and just in general help people find more appropriate medications. I sure know that I’m interested to see if I’m actually penicillin-allergic, or if that allergic reaction I had in second grade was a one time thing!

Main article:

http://www.biologynews.net/archives/2015/11/05/consider_penicillin_even_if_you_have_had_a_prior_reaction.html

The Ebola Epidemic: When Will it End?

Ebola Virus

The Ebola epidemic in West Africa has captivated international audiences the last few weeks.  Ebola Virus Disease is an often fatal disease which is systemic meaning it attacks all organs and tissue in the body. It can be spread through any human to human contact, making this disease highly contagious. The countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea have been heavily affected by this disease. On tuesday September 23th the Center for Disease Control (CDC) based in Atlanta Georgia released new projections on the Ebola epidemic in Africa based on computer modeling.  The CDC released a best-case scenario being that if proper measures are taken the disease could be eradicated by January 2nd and a worse-case scenario that if disease is left unmonitored and continues as is, there will be approximately 1.4 million cases by January 2nd.   Doctor Thomas R. Frieden, the director of the Ebola epidemic, has stated that since the data was received in August conditions have improved slightly due to increased aid to the affected regions. Another report was released by the World Health Organization (WHO) which stated more conservative figures but also acknowledged that there could possibly be more due to unreported cases. The WHO report brings about the idea that the epidemic may not end and the Ebola virus will perpetuate in West Africa. It is obvious to health officials, such as Dr. Jack Chow, that even in a medium case scenario the amount of hospital beds and aid are rapidly being surpassed by the number of cases. The CDC does acknowledge this impending lack of bed and isolation unit crisis. One solution to this problem is to educate citizens on home care and send home care packages to support this movement.  Although some are dubious, Frieden states that home care had been effective in the smallpox crisis in the 1960s in Africa.  In addition to homecare, Doctor D. A. Henderson explains that funds and food play a huge roll in the containment and elimination of disease because when you give victims money and food there is no need for them to beg or go out to the market for food where they might encounter other human contact. How should this epidemic be handled? Is homecare an effective solution? Where should money be allocated, homecare or hospital expansion?

 

Link to Article:

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/24/health/ebola-cases-could-reach-14-million-in-4-months-cdc-estimates.html?ref=health&_r=1

 

To Know or Not to Know: Cancer Risk Gene Testing

Breast Cancer Cells

Genetic mutation testing has been a hotly debated and controversial topic since its initial prevalence in 1990.  Originally genetic testing was used to test females who have cancer in their family history for the BRCA 1 and 2 gene mutations.  Early detection of these mutations allowed for precautionary measure sure to be exercised prior to cancer even being diagnosed. The hereditary breast cancer risk testing was done mainly by Myraid Genetics but just last year the Supreme Court invalidated Myraid’s patents on the testing of the BRCA genes.  This ruling opened up many windows for the competition of Myraid in the field of genetic testing.  Many other companies and Myraid itself began not only offering BRCA testing but also more elaborate multi gene testing for the same price (apron $4000) as it would have been to test just the two BRCA genes.  This “bargain” influenced many patients to have more genes (up to 25) tested for mutations despite the fact that they may not have a family history to tendency towards certain cancers.  This multiplex testing has raised many eyebrows in the medical field because patients and doctors are getting information that sometimes they are unsure as to what they should do.  Doctor Kenneth Offit of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center stated when referring to multiple gene mutation testing, “because they could be tested,not necessarily because they should be…individuals are getting results we’re not fully educated to council them on. ” However Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center is working on setting up a database for more knowledge on genetic testing.  This online forum, the Prospective Registry of Multiplex Testing (PROMPT) will allow for more research to be done and for patients to learn more.   Often genetic mutations are found and doctors are unsure how to react to the information due to lack of knowledge in that specific field of mutation leading to a specific type of cancer with out any family history.   Professor Mary-Claire King of the University of Washington voiced her opinion that, “We need to report back only what is devastating and clearly devastating.”  Meaning she felt that patients and physicians should only receive specific information as opposed to a full list of all the genetic mutations that tested position or inconclusive.  When do we know when to much information become frivolous? When it come to human health, the more we know the better the outcomes.  How will doctors be able to sift through extraneous data to find what truly are indications for higher risk of cancer?  Is this “extra” testing and information skewing the data and prognosis of many patients?

 

Main Article Used:

http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/23/health/finding-risks-not-answers-in-gene-tests.html?ref=health&_r=0

 

Cuts, Scrapes, and Hair Loss a Thing of the Past!

images

Can adults repair their tissues as easily as children can? A study currently conducted at Boston Children’s hospital is attempting to find the answer to this question. Researchers have found that by activating a gene called Lin28a, they were able to “regrow hair and repair cartilage, bone, skin and other soft tissues in a mouse model.”  The scientists found that Lin28a works by enhancing metabolism in mitochondria—which, as we learned in class, are the “powerhouses” of the cells. This in turn helps generate the energy needed to stimulate and grow new tissues.
This discovery is a very exciting one for the field of medicine. The study’s senior investigator George Daley said, “[Previous] efforts to improve wound healing and tissue repair have mostly failed, but altering metabolism provides a new strategy which we hope will prove successful.” Scientists were even able to bypass Lin28a and directly activate the mitochondrial metabolism with a small compound and still enhance healing. Researcher Shyh-Chang says of this, “Since Lin28 itself is difficult to introduce into cells, the fact that we were able to activate mitochondrial metabolism pharmacologically gives us hope.” Since it is difficult for scientist to actually introduce Lin28a into a cell, it might be easier to simply synthetically create a substitute and introduce that. Either way, I think this is a very promising discovery! What other uses can you think of for this discovery?

 

Source:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131107123144.htm

New technique will identify maternal and paternal contributions to specific DNA

 

Photo by: gobucks2 Link: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ohiostate/4851592434/

Intro:A recent Ludwig Cancer Research study, conducted at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, was published in Nature Biotechnology. It concerns a new technique, called HaploSeq, that can determine (1) whether a specific gene sequence is maternal or paternal (2) how to better match organ donors (3) how to better understand human migration patterns. This will aid studies concerning how genes contribute to diseases and will be revolutionary in its contributions to modern medicine.

Old Technique: Current gene sequencing is considered quick and cheap: it takes one week and costs $5,000. But, except for sex chromosomes, everyone has two copies of each chromosome, one from the dad and one from the mom. These techniques cannot distinguish between the two, so the source of a gene cannot be determined.

New Technique:

Disease: It distinguishes which genetic variants occur together, concluding that they came from one parent due to their juxtaposition. People at risk for cancer usually have many DNA mutations. This technique can permit scientists to determine if mutations are on same or different chromosomes, assessing level of the risk. Risk is reduced if two mutations are on one chromosome, for the other chromosome can make up for the mutated one.

Organ Donors: A variety of genes contribute to compatibility, but there is variability among them. This technique can determine if DNA differences can create a good match. Researchers believe that in the future, a DNA database can be created to better pair donor and recipients.

Human Migration Patterns: This technique will facilitate the analysis of human migration patterns and ancestry. People can simply compare their DNA to that of others to find any common ancestors. This will allow scientists to compare individuals and their relationships to others on a microscopic level. This contributes to the HapMap project, an international project to access worldwide human genetic variation in order to combat diseases.

Significance: Bing Ren, a scientist conducting this study, said: “In the not too distant future, everyone’s genome will be sequenced. That will become the standard of care.” DNA sequencing is the next step in revolutionary medical techniques, making this study a revelation.

 

The Black Mamba an Ally?

As the fangs pierce the skin, passing through the epidermis and into the dermis, you  may notice a feeble prick. Then, you will experience a numbness, similar to the one you get with pins and needles, and it will begin spread throughout your appendages. Within minutes your central nervous system will begin to shut down, leaving you without any hope of survival.  Within a half hour, your body will be overcome by convulsions, paralysis, and eventually you will meet your end by suffocation.

The Black Mamba, due to an assortment of different elements, including its aggressive behavior and its lethal venom, is possibly the deadliest species of snake on the planet. Untreated bites have a mortality rate of 100%. That, to me, is pretty convincing evidence.Recently, scientists have discovered “pain-relieving” compounds, known as peptides, within the venomous cocktail of the Black Mamba. The researchwas led by Sylvie Diochot, of the Institute of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology at Nice University. She and her team, purified the peptides from the snake’s venom and profiled the compounds’ structure. These peptides are called mambalgins. The researchers were able to test the mambalgins on different strains of mice. The team of researchers concluded that the mambalgins work by blocking, or inhibiting, the ASICs, a set of neurological ion channels associated with pain signaling, in either the central or peripheral neurons. They also discovered that the mambalgins are not toxic, and can have the same, strong effect as morphine. Even better, mambalgins cause a significantly less amount of tolerance than morphine, and generate no risk of respiratory distress and other side effects that are prevalent with “pain-relieving” drugs.The discovery of these mambalgins may prove to be an enormous medical breakthrough. Due to the venom of perhaps the world’s most deadly snake, the insufferable pain of many human beings may be be abolished indefinitely.

 

 

Wait, you don’t hear that ringing, too?

Defined as “the perception of sound in one or both ears or in the head when no external sound is present” by the American Tinnitus Foundation, tinnitus affects 50 million people in the US and forty percent of veterans.  It can be caused by everything physical trauma or long-term exposure to loud noises (i.e. combat veterans or teenagers with iPods) to hormonal imbalance or aspirin use. Currently, there are many treatments available, although the success rate of these treatments varies. The main reason for this is that the best way of treating tinnitus would involve delivering medication to the inner ear, the site of the problem. Currently, doctors have no way of putting medication in the inner ear, but this could change  in a few years thanks to the the beginning of a new project by the US Department of Defense, who has commissioned Draper Laboratory to work out a

concept for a small delivery device inserted near the membrane-covered window—no more than three millimeters in diameter—separating the middle ear from inner ear. Once at the membrane the device … would release a drug into the cochlea… The plan is to embed wireless communications into the capsule so that a patient or doctor can control the dosage. After the capsule finishes delivering its supply of drugs, it would dissolve. 

 

Courtesy of: http://www.lesliewong.us/blog/2009/01/23/sony-mdr-v6-and-sennheiser-cx300-headphones/
These may be setting up my generation for a tinnitus epidemic many years from now.

 

The project is only in its beginning stages, so it will be years before patients can actually reap any benefits from this technology. However, I take comfort in knowing that should I develop tinnitus, I could possibly have access to better treatment than is available today. This is especially relevant to my generation; everywhere you look, there are teenagers blasting their iPods, unknowingly (or not caring) causing permanent damage. Despite the warnings received from adult, many teens will not listen, and will continue to cause damage with loud noise. Should this treatment be developed, the tinnitus that will be inevitable developed by a large portion of my generation will treated, and possibly cured.

This project also holds a personal significance for me.  As someone who wants to eventually enter the armed forces, I am relieved to know that such a common issue among veterans is coming a step closer to being eradicated. Despite the technology used today to prevent noise damage,  I know of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans who are experiencing tinnitus, and even hearing loss. I’m glad that research is being conducted on a condition that, while it may not sound terribly crippling, can actually have a huge effect on one’s quality of life.

So, readers, do any of you have or know someone with tinnitus  If so, how did you or the person you know develop it? And, if you have it, would you consider one day utilizing this kind of treatment?

Post, discuss, talk with your friends. Discussion breeds awareness, which is key to arriving at a cure. 

 

 

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=tinnitus-treatment

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