Antibodies are superheros that could save many people from the devastating effects of COVID-19. Defined broadly, antibodies are proteins in the blood that are formed in order to fight against antigens and foreign substances. An article put out by the CDC on November 3, 2020, states that there is not enough information to make a formal conclusion regarding the ability of COVID-19 antibodies to protect someone from being infected again by the virus. Nonetheless, a more recent article released by Nature on December 7, 2020, counteracted that statement by analyzing a study in which Dan Barouch and his colleagues tested which elements defend against COVID-19 using rhesus macaques (monkeys). According to the study, only a very low level of antibodies is required to defend a host against COVID-19. Furthermore, when antibodies are low, T cells are found to contribute to immunity.
In the study, the team took antibodies from masques recovering from SARS-CoV-2 and distributed the antibodies to healthy masques. The antibodies successfully protected the masques from the virus and even activated antibody-dependent natural killer cells, boosting immunity. These results suggest that the injection of antibodies could be very successful in defending individuals from COVID-19.
This information regarding antibodies connects to topics covered in AP Biology. Our immune system protects our body against pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 through adaptive immunity. Two types of lymphocytes are necessary for an adaptive response: B Lymphocytes and T Lymphocytes. B cells are responsible for a humoral response (or antibody-meditated response) and secrete antibodies. Thus, when someone contracts COVID-19, the activated B cells in their body secrete antibodies that will bind to and neutralize SARS-CoV-2.
The fact that only a low level of antibodies is required to defend a host against COVID-19 is vital information for scientists. Extracting the antibody-producing B cells of an infected patient, medical experts could use the genetic information to create a massive amount of antibodies to be turned into a drug for distribution. This injection would help patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 fight off COVID-19. Thus, antibodies could save many lives and are, therefore, real life superheros!