BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: tomato

Can Gene Edited Tomatoes Save Your Life?

In a new invention by Hiroshi Ezura, the chief technology officer at Sanatech and molecular biologist, Tomatoes can now lead to lower blood pressure and higher relaxation.

This invention is based off a new phenomenon that is becoming more and more popular in Japan, food that is genetically edited using CRISPR technology. This technology is used to increase the amount of GABA in foods. GAMA, or gamma-aminobutyric acid, is a neurotransmitter and amino acid that “blocks impulses between nerve cells in the brain” (Waltz, Scientific American).

GAMA is being tested by many groups, including Ezura and his crew, for positive correlations between available GAMA, and health benefits. So far, there have not been any confirmed guaranteed health benefits, but the data from other genetically modified foods shows generally there are health benefits. People eating the food should feel more relaxed. Other tests have been done in the human, or animal bodies. GAMA is a natural substance found in humans, so the genetic mutations do not add a foreign substance to the body – it is safe to consume.

CRISPR technology is at the heart of this. This is a genetics technology in which one can add, take away, or alter sections of DNA. DNA is a double helix which consists of the nucleotide bases, Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, and Thymine. When certain sections of the genetic code, represented in letters, are replaced by others, certain genes can change. Genes are certain pieces of DNA that carry genetic information which can alter how someone looks or functions. When worked on a tomato, it is able to alter a gene that gets rid of a pathway called the GABA shunt, which through a series of events limits GABA in cells.

Basepairs Graphic Public Domain

This technique has been used before, but it is so special because this is the first time it has been a commercial food product. This is exciting; genetic engineering can have negative effects in some areas, but so far the data shows that it is effective. Personally, I hope there is a rigorous series of tests that has to be conducted in the future for each CRISPR modified food to be commercially produced and sold.

Click Here to Learn About the Tomato’s Fancy New Makeover

The sun rose on a dimly light Monday morning when Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Lázaro E.P. Peres, Agustin Zsögön, Lucas de Ávila Silva, Ronan Sulpice, and Emmanuel Rezende Naves published their groundbreaking discovery that could revolutionize the cultivation of chili’s forever.   These insanely talented and well established scientists figured out how to use the CRISPR-Cas9 editing tool to turn a tomato into    a chili.

Capsaicinoids are what give peppers their heat and when these scholars of science mapped the tomato’s and chili’s genomes, they saw that the tomato has genes that, when transcribed, produce these spicy and hot capsaicinoids.

The reason why this is important is because the chili’s cultivation process is extremely tedious and requires many specific conditions, not to mention it having a small yield.  Since the yield of tomatoes is 30x that of the chili, using the CRISPR-Cas9 tool, they could change the shape and taste of the tomato to that of a chili. The price of a chili peppers, per kg, compared to tomatoes is roughly 60 cents higher. It may not seem a ton, but in bulk orders, it quickly adds up.

Lázaro E.P. Peres, who is aProfessor of Plant Physiology at the University of São Paulo and one of the scientists on the team, says, “The proof of concept here is that we can transfer the unique thing endemic to a less-produced plant into another plant that is more widely produced”.  The paper states the tomato “is highly amenable to biotechnological manipulation”. This would drive the price of the chili down which would help markets, restaurants, and Gardners worldwide.

The only issue to this is the publics opinion. For years, the already established “organic” companies having been labelling genetically modified food as unhealthy compared to non-GMO foods.  This claim is simply outright false.  “Any plant or animal product is full of DNA that our body readily digests, messing with one or two genes isn’t going to impact human health. The only way GM food could affect human health is if the modification somehow produce a protein product that was actively toxic to humans.”  This quote is from an article by the Genetic Literacy Project, which could be seen as having bias towards GMO foods, however their mission says,”is to aid the public, media and policymakers in understanding the science and societal implications of human and agricultural genetic and biotechnology research and to promote science literacy.”  All they are interested in doing is educating the public because so many people have been lied to by big organic corporations and the media to prevent customers from eating GMO products.  What would they have to gain by saying they are safe when they are not?    If the public can get passed the idea of genetically modifying foods, I believe turning a tomato into a chili pepper would save much money from hundreds of thousands of businesses– big or small.

What do you guys and gals think of GMO products?

For more information, please go check out the primary source of this article and the researchers report

 

 

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