BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: genetic mutation

A Gene Mutation that Keeps You Awake and Functioning for Longer

INTRODUCTION:

Could a gene mutation really allow someone to finish college in two and a half years? The answer is yes! We all wish we could get by a function perfectly, or even better than normal, on less sleep. This is a reality for some, specifically people with a rare gene mutation. I saw an article titled, “Why Do Some People Need Less Sleep? It’s in their DNA,” and I thought this was a rather interesting topic, because I have never heard of less sleep ever being a positive thing. I am interested to see more research on this, and the possibility of it being an added benefit for others. It prompted me to think about whether or not this is something I would want, considering some of the implications. 

People with this gene mutation can get significantly less sleep than recommended for function, as little as three to four hours—without suffering any health consequences and while actually performing on memory tests as well as, or better than, most people. There is now a new study correlating to a new genetic mutation found with these “powers,” after previous studies revealed other types of mutations that may impact sleep.

 

HOW DID IT START?: 

To understand this rare ability when presented to them, scientist Ying-Hui Fu and her team, at the University of California, San Francisco, in 2009, began this study on some individuals, but also on mice, to simulate a similar sleep equilibrium to humans. After a woman came in claiming she was functioning at a high level on very short sleep time, scientists needed to understand, as lack sleep is typically correlates with health issues such as risk of heart attack, cancer, or even Alzheimer’s. They initially found a small mutation in the DEC2 gene, a transcriptional repressor (hDEC2-P385R) that is associated with a human short sleep phenotype. According to UCSF, DEC2 helps regulate “circadian rhythms, the natural biological clock that dictates when hormones are released and influences behaviors such as eating and sleeping. This gene oscillates this particular c schedule: rising during the day, but falling at night.” The newer study reveals that the DEC2 gene lowers your level of alertness in the evening by binding to and blocking MyoD1, a gene that turns on orexin production, a hormone involved in maintaining wakefulness. Fu says the mutation seen in human short sleepers weakens DEC2’s ability to put the breaks on MyoD1, leading to more orexin production and causing the short sleepers to stay awake longer.

THE NEW GENE MUTATION: 

In a new study, released on October 16, 2019, by Science Translational Medicine brought on by a mother and daughter duo, mice were studied again to mimic the human sleep pattern. The mice again required less sleep, and were able to remember better. In the study, researchers identified a point mutation in the neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) gene responsible for the short sleep phenotype. The mutation increased receptor sensitivity to the exterior ligand, and mice with the mutation displayed increased mobility time and reduced sleep duration. Even more interestingly, the animals were resistant to cognitive impairment induced by sleep deprivation. The results and findings in the study point to NPSR1 playing a major role in sleep-related memory consolidation. NSPR1 is a gene that codes for a brain receptor that controls functions in sleep behaviour and awakeness. In the new study, when mice were given this gene mutation, there were no obvious health, wellness, or memory issues over time. Although the family members did not appear to experience any of the negative effects of sleep deprivation, the researchers make sure to emphasize that longer term studies would be needed to confirm these findings.

WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLD?: 

In the future, a possible drug could be produced to synthesize a change in one of these genes, as a possible treatment for insomnia or other sleep disorders. We would need a lot more research about their functions, though, because of possible negative neurological side effects. 

If a medication with these powers were to exist, do you think it would cause social issues regarding some  possibly forcing certain individuals to take it to work longer hours/get more done? Do you think that it should be available to everyone, or only people with certain conditions? Comment about this below. 

 

Could There be Good Gene Mutations?

Is there an epic battle occurring within our bodies right now? The classic battle royale between good and bad? I suppose in the body’s case the fight between good and bad genes.  There is a new field in medical research in which researchers are on the quest to find good gene mutations that fight against the disease causing mutations.  One individual, Doug Whitney, sparked the interest of a few doctors because he has fought his genetic odds to be health at 65 years old.  Whitney has a gene mutation, presenilin, that causes early onset Alzheimer’s disease in those who has inherited it. Whitney’s mother and 9 out of his 13 siblings were killed by this mutation and so Whitney’s fate seemed to be sealed.  However when Whitney reached his 40s and 50s having no symptoms he assumed he did not have the gene.  At 62 years old, Whitney, decided he would get a gene test.  He did have the gene.  This was an anomaly, He was doomed to have early onset Alzheimer’s Disease but had absolutely no symptoms. Although Whitney still have changes of getting Alzhiemers but the effects of his bad gene have been greatly delayed by another gene in Whitney’s DNA.  Whitney joined a study at Washington University in St. Louis led by Doctor Randall Bateman which recruited people with the early onset Alzheimer’s disease gene. This attracted the attention of Doctor Eric E. Schadt and Doctor Stephen H. Friend.  Doctor Schadt said that searching for good genes that protect against bad gene mutations is completely turning genetic research on its head.  Researchers have found gene mutations that partially protect diseases like osteoporosis, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s.  These good gene mutation’s partial protect have help to develop drugs to help fight certain diseases. Finding good gene mutations are substantially more difficult to find than bad genes, but the search has gotten a little easier with fast and inexpensive methods of sequencing DNA. Doctor Schadt and Doctor Friend decided to start the Resilience Project and search for good gene mutations that counteract bad gene mutations to help develop new break though treatments and drugs. They have contacted the researchers at Washington University, the research that Whitney is currently participating in.

For more information:

Article from NYT

Prokaryotic positive genetic influences

Genetics used for intrusion protection

About genetic testing

 

Hearing Loss Clue Uncovered

In the United States, approximately forty-eight million (twenty percent) of men and women suffer some degree of hearing loss, as it is the third most common physical condition after arthritis and heart disease. While it is most often associated with the population sixty-five and
older, hearing loss effects all ages, as thirty school children per out one-thousand are afflicted in some varying degree. An individual is able to hear sound involving the ear’s main structures. In age-related hearing loss, one or more of these structures is damaged: the external ear canal, the middle ear, and the inner ear. External ear canal impairment is related exclusively to conducive hearing loss. The middle ear, which is separated from the ear canal by the eardrum may be caused by sensorineural hearing loss. Lastly, the inner ear, which contains the cochlea, the main sensory organ of hearing. When the vibrations from the middle ear enter the cochlea it causes the fluid to move and the sensory hair cells pick up this movement. In response to the movement of the fluid the hair cells send an electrical signal up the auditory nerve to the brain where it’s recognized as sound.

 

Now, how do these different internal departments of the human ear gradually induce hearing loss? While we get older, some may develop presbycusis, which causes the tiny hair-like cells in the cochlea to deteriorate over time. Clarity of sound decreases, as the hairs are unable to vibrate as effectively in response to sound. Recently, otolaryngologists have discovered new evidence that human hearing loss relates to a certain genetic mutations. A study at the University of Melbourne revealed “a novel genetic mutation was first identified in 2010 as causing hearing loss in humans… now discovered that this mutation induces malfunction of an inhibitor of an enzyme commonly found in our body that destroys proteins – known scientifically as SERPINB6. Individuals who lacked both copies of this “good gene” were shown to have lost their hearing by twenty years of age.

 

Although this discovery is changing the way scientists previously viewed hearing loss, the answer to why this mutation, SERPINB6, is a catalysts for such loss, is inconclusive. However, this mutative gene has created a revelation for many: it is now not unusual to show gradual signs of hearing loss under the age of sixty years.

 

To better understand the effects of the mutant gene, mice were used in order to imitate the condition from youth to adulthood. At only three weeks of age, mice with SERPINB6 had begun to lose hearing – three weeks is equivalent to pubescent or teenage years in humans. And as we could have predicted, the mice continued to show a decrease in hearing ability, much the same as humans. Researchers examined the mice’s inner ear, which revealed the cells responsible for interpreting sound (sensory hair cells) had died.

 

Fortunately, this new discovery of a mutant gene in human sensory cells has created new attention to better understand the case of those who are effected by the condition. 

 

 

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