The first superbug may have occurred 450 million years ago when animals decided to leave the water and begin to live on land. The scientists at the Broad Institute found evidence displaying a group of antibiotic-resistant bacteria which are as old as the first land animals. Like us humans, the animals possessed these superbugs in their guts. Since the bacteria has been around for so long it has given it time to adapt and develop necessary traits to make it resistant to antibiotics like penicillin. The specific superbug which has lasted since the first land animal is Enterococci.
They can be considered the “godfather” of superbugs. Enterococci were found during the 80’s and were one of the first pathogens to be known to resist antibiotics. Enterococci bacteria today is a major cause of hospital infections in the United States and infects up to 70,000 Americans and kills up to 1,000 each year. Enterococci is so special because it possesses a number of genes which are focused on “hardening and fortifying” the cell wall. The reinforced cell wall allows for the bacteria to fight off disinfectants and not dry out. Research also shows that the fortification was added around the same time that animals began to come ashore. Since the two events happened around the same time it is assumed that the new fortification was to assist the survival of the bacteria in the new environment.
Enterococci had to create new fortification against new elements on land which was not present in the water. Since Enterococci is located in the gut some are excreted through feces. In water, the excreted Enterococci would end up at the bottom of the ocean floor which was moist and filled with nutrients, similar to the guts of a marine animal. When the Enterococci was released on land it would meet a harsher environment where they were exposed to Ultra-violent light from the sun. This caused the bacteria to dry up and die. Eventually, the bacteria developed and picked up the fortification needed which now helps them to thrive in hospitals. Their shell from 450 million years ago allows them to be resistant to the typical effects of cleaning measures in hospitals. The protection the bacteria has is what causes it to be considered a superbug. Even though superbugs are becoming more prominent the understanding of the so-called “godfather” of superbugs may help us to find ways to defeat Enterococci and hopefully other superbugs.