BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: bloodclotting

Clot Chronicles: Decoding the Intricacies of Proteins and Vaccines in COVID-19 Immunity

Are you vaccinated for COVID-19? Well, the article titled, Protein interaction causing rare but deadly vaccine-related clotting found, discusses a mechanism that has led people to deadly clots. These scientists identified that some individuals developed these clots after receiving certain COVID-19 vaccines. The research explains  Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT) which is a condition where the body produces blood clots. When a patient has this condition antibodies attach to a protein called Platelet Factor 4 (PF4), forming immune complexes. 

Protein PF4 PDB 1f9q(PF4)

Additionally, Platelet Factor 4 is a small cytokine in the CXC Chemokine family. Cytokines are small proteins that are released by macrophages to attack a virus.  Platelet Factor 4’s most prominent function is to promote blood coagulation; but, it is also involved in innate and adaptive immunity

The Immune System, as discussed in depth in my AP Biology class,  protects the body against pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. COVID-19 is an example of one of these viruses that infects the body through its various openings, most generally, the nose and mouth. Innate and Adaptive response are the two parts of the immune system. The innate response is something everyone is born with, works immediately upon infection, and is nonspecific which contrasts the adaptive immune response which is slower and more targeted. 

Returning to the vaccines, these complexes activate platelets and immune cells and lead to clotting and inflammation. Inflammatory responses are a result of the mast cells locating the “invader” and releasing histamine as an “alarm” to the body. Histamine causes inflammation in the body and an inflammatory response which is typically painful. When I had COVID I remember taking anti-inflammatory medications to reduce the pain I felt from the inflammatory response I was experiencing such as my high fever.

In summary, the ongoing research wants to find people who might be more likely to get VITT with future vaccines, so we can understand and manage the risks better, making vaccines more effective. 

After reading this article and doing outside research I believe this study to be highly important because researchers understand how to make vaccines safer for the future. As someone who has not been vaccinated it is valuable for me to know the risks and rewards of the vaccine. So … COVID-19 vax worth it or not? Let me know what you think in the comments!

The SHOCKING Truth About Tattoos!

Dying to get a tattoo? You might want to hold that thought.

It might seem cool to have something permanently tattooed on your body, whether it represents an important symbol or not. People get tattoos for various reasons but many people see them as works of art that they want to display on their bodies. People spend much time to think about what images or symbols they want to display. However, few think about what happens after they get this tattoo. Yet, the after effects should be the most important consideration.

What effects does ink have on the body?

Tattoo artists inject ink into the dermis, the layer of skin under the epidermis, filled with blood vessels and nerves. But does the ink really just stay on the surface of the skin? Research and testing on rats has shown that some ink particles can travel through the bloodstream and enter the lymph nodes within minutes, which can cause major harm to the body. Ines Schreiver, a scientist who is part of a team of German and French scientists, found Titanium dioxide along with metal particles such as nickel and chromium (shocking) in the lymph nodes. These ink particles can cause complications such as enlargement of lymph nodes and blood clotting.

What about contamination of ink?

Furthermore, tattoo ink production is highly unregulated. So, no one knows for sure what companies are putting in the ink. According to Dr. Linda Katz, director of the FDA’s Office of Cosmetics and Colors, there is no fool-proof way of telling whether tattoo ink is contaminated. A study in Denmark showed that about 10% of unopened tattoo ink bottles were infected with bacteria.

So, what’s the verdict?

This study alone should make you think twice about getting a tattoo. Although tattooing has been part of human culture for countless years, these recent findings should create a more cautious attitude towards tattoos. There are many other ways to symbolize something that’s important to you or to make yourself look different.  You need to always think first about your health.

For more information click here.

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