BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: Biotech

Bringing the Human Gut Microbiome into the Light

The human gut microbiome is an incredible system of symbiotic organisms. These micro-organisms that provide us with vitamins and amino acids as well as break down toxins and protect us from harmful invaders. We could not live without them and they could not survive without their host, us. We carry over 3 pounds of these little helpers in our body and outnumber our cells. Although this system is so important to our survival, it has been hard to study for long periods of time, until now. Judah Folkman, professor of Vascular Biology at Harvard Medical School states, “”Until now, use of traditional culture methods and even more sophisticated organoid cultures have prevented the microbiome from being studied beyond one or two days. With our human gut-on-a-chip, we can not only culture the normal gut microbiome for extended times.”

 Escherichia coli

E. Coli 10000x magnified

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fecal_bacteriotherapy

The human gut-on-a-chip is constructed from a clear, flexible polymer roughly the size of the a flash drive. This chip simulates the environment of our gut so well that cultures can last up to weeks. This extended period of time can allow for major breakthroughs in the study of the microbiome and what happens when things do not go as planned. Judah Folkman adds, “we can also analyze contributions of pathogens, immune cells, and vascular and lymphatic endothelium, as well as model specific diseases to understand complex pathophysiological responses of the intestinal tract.”

 

The Wyss team thinks that this new technology can help treat patients by eventually culturing there own cells and microbiome on the human gut-on-a-chip to test different treatments. This new technology, although not directly discovering anything about the human gut microbiome, will lead to major discoveries down the line.

 

Main Article:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151214165918.htm

 

Other Articles:

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140707103641.htm

http://www.britannica.com/science/human-microbiome

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Microbiome_Project

Genetically Altered Soybean Might Be Just What America Needs

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bequer-B100-SOJA-SOYBEAM.jpg

Soybean oil

Genetically modified organisms, or GMOs have long had an unfortunate reputation. Viewed on par with crops that make use of pesticides and other harmful chemicals, and often thought to be unhealthy. Organic farmers and magazines scorn their use and consumers think twice before purchasing products that make use of them. However, Monsanto, an extremely large and influential agriculture company that is similarly often cast in a negative light, has teamed up with DuPont Pioneer to revamp the genetic makeup of the soybean to create a bean that produces oil completely free of trans fats. It’s new fat composition is similar to that of olive oil, and it can potentially be produced on a larger scale and cheaper than it’s olive counterpart. Companies believe that this new innovation will help to improve the public image of GMOs and other biotech. As most endeavors up to this point have focused on resistance to weeds and parasites, rather than health and taste, it has been easy for consumers to create a negative view of  GMOs, but this new soybean, more consumer oriented, might help to sway that view.

The specific genetic modifications to the oil are the alteration of a gene that converts oleic fatty acids into linoleic acid. This conversion causes soybean oil to have an extremely short shelf life. The problem used to be solved by treating the oil with hydrogen gas, but this caused it to become saturated. With the gene silenced, there is no need for the hydrogen treatment, and the oil can remain unsaturated and free of trans-fats.

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