AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: antibiotic

Adapted Bacteria vs AI

In a recent article it has been found out by researchers at Washington State University that it is possible to find antibiotic resistant genes in bacteria with machine learning and game theory.

In the world of health and medicine one of, if not the biggest discovery is antibiotics. They were the most simple way of clearing out or slowing down the reproduction of bacteria in the human body. People a long time ago had been dying left and right to bacterial deseases and antibiotics helped the expectancy of everyone’s lives. However eventually after it started being used bacteria with DNA that has antibiotic resistance survived and reproduced. Eventually it could be problematic as there’s many ways to acquire resistances as said here. With certain bacteria that many people used to be infected with a lot and since people used antibiotics for it certain bacteria had vast resistances as there’s very limited antibiotics to kill one type of disease. If there was a strand of bacteria completely used to antibiotics it could wipe out the human race. If you want to learn more on that it could be found here


Although it isn’t too bad and we haven’t run into many bacteria that resist antibiotics, it can also be very dangerous if a person takes an antibiotic that the bacteria in their body is resistant to. The bacteria then wouldn’t die and thy would also expand and live on to reproduce and make the problem worse since it was technically not treated. However with what the people in Washington state university are doing computers would more and more be able to find the bacteria that have genes resistant to certain antibiotics.  The AI would learn more and more what genes are likely to be ones that resist antibiotics and they will be able to apply that to other situations. This method used worldwide would really help people know what type of antibiotics to give sick people. If a strain of bacteria is treated with antibiotics that most of it is resistant to not only could the person die but the existing bacteria in that persons body could be extremely dangerous if it reproduces as said before. So knowing if that bacteria does indeed have a resistance could be pivotal in many peoples lives. This could also happen at new speeds since that is one of the biggest advantages of using AI.

Not only is this new method very fast it is also very efficient. The researches at Washington state had been able to determine this at an accuracy rate ranging from 93% -99%. These constant advancements in health and technology show how the implementation of tech into health has changed life as we know it and will continue to forever.

Milking Scorpions yields $10,300/ml Antibiotic Venom

Why is it important?

Who would have thought that Scorpions could be providing useful antibiotics through their venom, something most would think of as a harmful substance. It was found that while testing the venom of a Mexican Diplocentrus melici scorpion, a previously studied venom, the venom could be split into two parts. The two types are called Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria” and when separated they both have specific uses. One of the parts was red and the other blue, it was found that one part was good at killing Staphylococcus, and the other was good at combatting Tuberculosis. Due to these findings, the scientists saw parts of the venom as potential antibodies.

(Scorpion Diagram) 

The Testing:

The two parts of the venom where both tested on rats. It was found that both parts respectively combatted the staph bacteria and the TB. The researchers, however, are skeptical as to whether the antibodies would work as well in humans, and how they would measure the correct amount to be administered to a human given that the substance is so difficult and/or expensive to obtain.

The High Pricetag:

“When electrical stimulation is used to “milk” the venom glands of scorpions, an average yield of anywhere from 0.006 mg to about 2.0 mg of venom can be obtained from a single scorpion.” Not a lot, right? But according to Scientific American, the “milk” from a single scorpion sells for about $10,300 per Milliliter, thats nearly $39 Million per gallon. The reason for its high price tag is its low quantity per scorpion and how inconvenient it is to extract the venom. Each scorpion also takes about two weeks to replenish its venom.


While the thought of administering scorpion venom as a medical treatment, in my opinion, sounds awesome, it may not be the most realistic method. The testing proves that it does work for combating TB and Staph microorganisms, however, the tests were done on rats. Until the venom can be said for certain to be effective for humans, and there is a MUCH cheaper cost, I’m not sure how feasible it is to treat people with scorpion venom.


This Easy Method Will Make Sure You Never Get Strep Again

More than 3 million people a year get diagnosed with strep throat, however since it is a minor illness that is very easily treated, people do not see the issue with getting sick almost every year. Because bacteria reproduce in just a few days, many generations of bacteria go by very quickly; and every time they reproduce, they are also evolve.  Meaning, every time one takes antibiotics, the bacteria becomes more and more resistant to it, until we can’t kill them anymore with the same antibiotic.

For many humans around the world, the thought of not being able to fix a simple bacterial infection with an antibiotic is quite frightening; however recent discoveries about the human microbiome puts this fear away.

Bacteria at the microscopic level

There are many helpful bacteria that live in the throat and mouth. Most of these helpful bacteria are probiotics.  The probiotic that specifically attacks strep, is actually another strain of strep called Streptococcus salivarius K12. This probiotic produces two lantibiotics that attack Streptococcus pyogenes, the species that are responsible for the known strep throat.

From this knowledge, scientists did an experiment that gave one group a tablet that, when chewed, released billions of colonies of S. salivarius K12 and gave another group a tablet that did nothing. The group that received the probiotic, showed a 90% reduction in strep episodes than the group that received nothing. This information also helped decrease the time on antibiotics for strep by 30 times.

You can buy doses of S. salivarius K12 here if you are interested in not only staying away from strep throat, but also improving your overall oral microbiome.

If you are interested in reading more about not just the mouth and oral human microbiome, but the whole entire human microbiome; click here!


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