For several dozen years scientists have searched for a way to understand the role of a single RNA strand in gene expression. Scientists have been without a method to pinpoint 1 type of RNA strand and isolate its effect thus discovering its influence and its corresponding proteins role in influencing the way our bodies work.
However a breakthrough was made this march regarding such obstacles. A team of scientists from Michigan Technological University discovered a way to turn off small RNA strands in order to figure out what they are up to. They did this by inserting their own custom DNA strand that codes for something called a small tandem target mimic or “STTM” into a plant known as “Arabidopsis“. Inside the plant, these DNA strands gave rise to STTM’s that blocked the ability of a target RNA to express itself. The particular target for the STTM was a type of RNA strand suspected to be involved with facilitating vertical growth of the plant. The STTM’s stopped the RNA from being able to cut itself into smaller bits, and prompted the target RNA’s to destroy all of its own smaller RNA’s that would normally slice the target RNA. This effectively lead to the disappearance of the target RNA’s protein products thus resulting in no expression of the gene the target RNA from transcribed from.
The result was outstanding. “The control Arabidopsis plants grew upward on a central stem with regularly shaped leaves and stems. The mutant plants were smaller, tangled, and amorphous.”
The above process is said to be “a highly effective and versatile tool” for studying the functions of small RNA. One researcher on the team who discovered this method stated that she intends to use this discovery to study type 2 diabetes.