SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes the COVID-19 disease, has changed our daily lives completely. Doctors and researchers have been working endlessly to figure out how to put a stop to its spread and get us back to our normal ways of life. Getting tested for COVID-19 is an extremely helpful way to further our knowledge of the virus and prevent it from spreading.
In order to prevent the spread of the virus, we must be able to track it. Researchers have found a way to test for COVID-19 through diagnostic tests. The tests are performed by healthcare personnels at clinics or doctors’ offices, with specific kits. The head is tilted back at a 70 degree angle and a swab is inserted inside the nostril, sometimes both, to collect the cells from the back of the nose. The swab is inserted to absorb the cells and then put into a sterile tube to be sent to a laboratory. There, a PCR test is performed and the cells are examined.
You might ask, “how does the test work?” In simple terms, the virus’ RNA is made up of thousands of nucleotides. Researchers have developed a PCR test, in which it looks for the virus’ DNA, within a person’s cells. Since the virus does not have DNA but rather has RNA, a RT-PCR test is needed to test for the disease. The RT-PCR test consists of various “reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions” where the RNA of the virus is transcribed into “complimentary DNA” that is used in the PCR test. The nucleic acids of a person’s cells are taken from the swab they were tested with, and replicated millions of times to be examined. The DNA is processed by a PCR instrument to see if the genes of the virus is within the human cell.
SARS-CoV-2 has a surface made up of spike proteins. The spike proteins attach to a receptor on the surface of a human cell and fuses through the membrane. This is how it passes through its first line of defenses and enters respiratory epithelial cells lined on the respiratory tract, making it a respiratory virus. Once the virus is inside of the cell, it releases its RNA and is encoded, thus replicating itself. From there, the dendritic cells work to get a defense reaction from the immune system.
When the pandemic had recently started, there were very limited tests available. The CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, urged that only people with symptoms or people who have had high exposure to a person who tested positive be tested. Symptoms include a dry cough, fever, and shortness of breath. It was later found that people were testing positive for COVID-19 who had no symptoms, or had high exposure to it. This pushed researchers to develop more tests due to the fact that the virus was spread easier than they initially thought. Now there have been millions of tests shipped out, and more people are able to get tested. This is prevents the virus from spreading through people who do not know they have it. It also allows researchers to get a more accurate number of positive cases. The development of test kits and PCR testing has been extremely successful, even though there have been some inaccurate results.
When do you think we will be able to return to our normal lives?