The Miracle of DNA Regulation
Now, the question posed is why we don’t grow ears on our arms. May I introduce to you: gene regulation. That’s right. Even though every single cell in your body has the same DNA, the body is able to ‘turn off’ different genes so that only ones that are necessary are read. This is why you do not grow ears on your arms, because those ear-making genes are ‘turned off’.
This question has been plaguing scientists for quite a while, as we have discovered genes in the human genome that are ‘turned off’ but could potentially be quite useful such as the regeneration of limbs (same as a starfish or a crab). Now there has been a new breakthrough in how we understand gene regulation thanks to some researchers in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The binding domain’s function in gene regulation has been known for quite some time already. The mystery lied within the activation domain. It has now been discovered that the activation domain sort of acts as a net, capturing the molecules for gene regulation and anchoring the transcription ‘machinery’ by the gene that is to be transcribed.
But… How? What Does This Mean?
Well, the activation domain creates little droplets by mingling with transcription proteins that attract the transcription machinery stuff. It’s kind of like creating oil droplets in vinegar. This process is now called phase separation. This has grand implications for even more research on gene regulation and can even give more insight into diseases such as cancer. When do you think the next breakthrough will come? Do you think this is the key to unlocking how to turn genes on and off for good or is there much more work to be done?