All eukaryotic cells consist of compartmentalized organelles, each with a specific function. We’ve all heard of mitochondria, chloroplast, and lysosomes, but, what if we could design a new organelle?! That’s exactly what scientists are working on right now – modifying or hijacking existing organelles to fit new specific functions.
Scientists currently have the technology to alter the DNA of cells to manufacture proteins they couldn’t “naturally” make. However, this technique has a few flaws. The proteins produced or their intermediates could damage the cell and chemicals in the cell could damage the proteins. If we could compartmentalize the production of these new proteins, this problem would be avoided. So, we look to organelles!
Stuart Warriner, a chemical biologist at the University of Leeds, and his colleagues believe peroxisomes are the key. Current techniques allow scientists to manipulate these organelles. Their experiments show that they could deliver certain proteins into the peroxisomes of most cells. These selective proteins are ones that are not usually made; therefore, we say that humans have “hijacked” the cell.
Scientists are hopeful that future research could lead to the ability to use peroxisomes to manufacture compounds by importing specific proteins into them. Currently, when an organelle is modified, every organelle of that type must be modified. Future research could ensure that modified and conventional organelles could coexist in the same cell. In addition, Warriner and his team are working on the modification of peroxisomes in yeast to produce desirable compounds. Despite these studies, Warriner believes that this technique of hijacking organelles will not be implemented in humans for decades, if not never, because it wouldn’t be particularly useful. To learn more, check out their findings!
We have the ability to alter DNA and cells! That is amazing! Although peroxisome altercation may not prove to be essential to humans, it is still an impressive exploratory feat and a step toward greater modification in microscopic organisms. What do you think similar cell modification research should be focused on?