BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

Tag: T cells

Taking care of your gut might be a pain now, but is definitely worth it!

Brain with Alzheimer’s

The contributions of microbes to multiple aspects of human physiology and neurobiology in health and disease have up until now not been fully appreciated.
Many people have said the human gut is like a “second brain.” With trillions of microbes, the digestive tract of the human gut can influence many things such as your metabolism, nutrition, immune function, and even your happiness. New research continues to show links between the brain and the health of the gut.

For example, a study from Lund University found that “unhealthy intestinal flora can accelerate the development of Alzheimer’s disease.” Alzheimer’s disease is an extremely common form of dementia or memory loss. It is caused by the death of many brain cells, which progressively decreases the size of the brain and the number nerve cells and connections. This study showed that mice with Alzheimer’s have a different bacterial profile in their guts than mice without this disease. Dr. Frida Fak Hallenius said that “Alzheimer’s is a preventable disease and in the near future we will likely be able to give advice on what to eat to prevent it. Take care of your gut bacteria, by eating lots of whole-grains, fruits and vegetables.”

 

After these discoveries, researchers are looking deeper into how bacteria can affect brain pathology. One of their ideas is that the bacteria may affect T-cells in the gut, which controls inflammatory processes both in the gut and brain. Therefore, if we can find a way to increase the health of the gut, we can reduce inflammation and brain damage. Alzheimer’s, while it is one of the most feared diseases, is preventable to in extent and if not preventable, there are several ways to delay it. The human gut microbiome has a huge impact on your health and your brain’s health. If scientists can continue to discover how to make your gut as healthy as possible, Alzheimer’s could soon be a thing of the past.

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/gut-bacteria-alzheimers_us_589e0e09e4b03df370d628be

http://www.nature.com/news/the-tantalizing-links-between-gut-microbes-and-the-brain-1.18557

A Baby’s Immune System Might Be Stronger Than We Think

Lymphocyte_activation_simple

Mothers are often extremely protective of their newborn. Most moms are fearful that everything could potentially make their baby sick. Unfortunately though, there is no absolutely sure way to keep a child from getting sick. The immune system plays a huge role in keeping humans well. Two important parts of the immune system are antibodies and memory cells. Antibodies help kill harmful germs while memory cells help the immune system respond quickly to an infection and prevent disease. In fact, recent studies prove that the Immune system of newborn babies are stronger than people previously believed.

Scientists involved in a study led by King’s College London, are reporting that newborn immune T cells can trigger an inflammatory response to bacteria. Originally, it was believed that babies immune systems were immature and therefore couldn’t trigger the same inflammatory response adults normally demonstrate. The team discovered that whilst T cells in newborn babies manufacture a potent anti-bacterial molecule known as IL8. It activates neutrophils to attack the body’s foreign invaders.

In addition, Dr. Deena Gibbons, Lead author in the Department of Immunobiology at King’s College London believes that this “mechanism by which the baby protects itself in the womb from infections of the mother.” Next, she plans to better understand the reasons that there are many differences between the immune cells in newborns and those in adults.

The T Cell activity demonstrated by newborns could be used for future treatments to boost the immune system or neonates in intensive care (place with major risk of infection).

This article is very interesting and important because it is vital to keep newborn babies as healthy and safe as we possibly can. Sometimes it can be as simple as following common measures such as hand washing, avoiding people who are most likely to be sick, snotty noses or hacking coughs. A mother should try to do anything she can to limit the demands placed and a baby’s immune system in the early months to keep her baby healthy.

I chose this article because I know what it is like to be a patient in a Hospital and the precautions that doctors take to prevent further sickness when the immune system is not fully developed or strong.

Image links: 

Häggström, Mikael. “Medical gallery of Mikael Häggström 2014“. Wikiversity Journal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.008ISSN 20018762. – Image:Lymphocyte_activation.png

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system

Article: King’s College London. “Immune system of newborn babies stronger than previously thought.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 September 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140921145104.htm>.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140921145104.htm

Other Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system

http://www.wellness.com/reference/allergies/newborn-immune-system

http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/immunity/immune-detail.html

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