BioQuakes

AP Biology class blog for discussing current research in Biology

The More You Sit, The More You Forget!

Researchers from the University of California, Los Angeles recently discovered a linkage between the memory of middle to older aged adults and their sedentary behaviors, actions that require little energy like sitting or lying down.

They concluded that long periods of sitting, like at a desk chair, affects the specific region of the brain that is involved in creating new memories, the medial temporal lobe. The UCLA researchers closely studied 35 people ages 45 to 75 years old, documenting their physical activity for two weeks prior to and during the study.  After the three months of research, they used a high resolution MRI scan and quickly noticed similarities between the thickness of each adult’s medial temporal lobe who spent on average the same amount of hours sitting everyday. The more hours spent sitting, regardless of any physical activity, the more thin the medial temporal lobe. “The participants reported that they spent from 3 to 7 hours, on average, sitting per day. With every hour of sitting each day, there was an observed decrease in brain thickness, according to the study. ”

Even though the findings of this study are preliminary, it suggests that “reducing sedentary behavior may be a possible target for interventions designed to improve brain health in people at risk for Alzheimer’s disease.” Becoming more active is always a great thing, but becoming conscious of how much time you spend being inactive and working to decrease that, could help you out more than you think. There is still more research to be done on this matter but this is a step in the right direction for improving life for those with memory related diseases and improving overall brain health.

To read more check out the full article here!

GATTACA is Here!

            In August of 2017 Scientists finally had figured out how to successfully edited genes in human embryos in order to treat serious disease-causing mutation using advanced CRISPER/Cas9. This is a  major milestone as it brings scientists closer to the reality of being able to genetically engineer babies in order to re

File:CRISPR-Cas9-biologist.jpg

Photo by J Levin W

pair faulty genes. This concept has always been feared due to the lack of success and safety of previous genetic tests, however, this study proves that scientists can now successfully edit genes.“We’ve always said in the past gene editing shouldn’t be done, mostly because it couldn’t be done safely,” said Richard Hynes, a cancer researcher at the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology who co-led the committee. “That’s still true, but now it looks like it’s going to be done safely soon,” he said, adding that the research is “a big breakthrough.” Genetic testing has also been regarded as unethical due to the possibility of eugenics, in which wealthy families would pay to have their embryos adjusted to get enhanced cosmetic traits such as height and muscle mass. “What our report said was, once the technical hurdles are cleared, then there will be societal issues that have to be considered and discussions that are going to have to happen. Now’s the time.” This successful study has come out only months after a national scientific committee recommended new guidelines for modifying embryos in which they strongly urge gene editing be used solely for severe hereditary medical conditions.

Crispr is coming soon to hospitals and medical facilities near you

In 2013, researchers demonstrated a type of gene editing ,called Crispr-Cas9, which could be used to edit living human cells. This means that DNA could be altered. It has been tested in labs, but now it is going to be tested on humans.
Crispr Therapeutics applied for permission from European regulators to test a code-named CTX001, in patients suffering from beta-thalassaemia, an inherited blood disease where the body does not produce enough healthy red blood cells. Patients with the most severe form of the illness would die without frequent transfusions.
If the trials are successful, Crispr, Editas and a third company, Intellia Therapeutics, plan to study the technique in humans with a bigger range of diseases including cancer, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Since China is more lenient when it comes to human trials, several studies are already happened, but there was no conclusive data.
Katrine Bosley, chief executive of Editas, says the field of gene editing is moving at “lightning speed”, but that the technique will at first be limited to illnesses “where there are not other good options”.

The reason for this is because, as with any new technology, scientists and regulators are not fully aware of the safety risks involved. “We want it to be as safe as it can, but of course there is this newness,” says Ms Bosley.

Although Crispr-Cas9 has not yet been trialled in humans in Europe or the US, it has already benefited medical research greatly by speeding up laboratory work. It used to take scientists several years to create a genetically modified mouse for their experiments, but with Crispr-Cas9 “transgenic” mice can be produced in a few weeks.
Despite the sucesses, the field of gene editing has been hampered by several setbacks. Editas had hoped to start human trials earlier, but was forced to move the date back after it encountered manufacturing delays. Crispr has lost several key executives in recent months, while Cellectis had to suspend its first trial briefly last year after a patient died.

Crispr is in its beginning stages ,and although it is not yet mainstream, it is expected to be completely groundbreaking in the field of medicine.

Closer to Reality: Gene Editing Technology

In August of 2017, scientists in the United States were successful in genetically modifying human embryos, becoming the first to use CRISPR-cas9 to fix a disease causing DNA replication error in early stage human embryos. This latest test was the largest scale to take place and proved that scientists were able to correct a mutation that caused a genetic heart condition called hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

CRISPR-cas9 is a genome editing tool that is faster and more economical than othe r DNA editing techniques. CRISPR-cas9 consists of two molecules, an enzyme called cas9 cuts strands of DNA so pieces of DNA can be inserted in specific areas. RNA called gRNA or guide RNA guide the cas9 enzyme to the locations where impacted regions will be edited.

(Source: Wikipedia Commons)

 

Further tests following the first large-scale embryo trial will attempt to solidify CRISPR’s track record and bring it closer to clinical trials. During the clinical trials, scientists would use humans- implanting the modified embryos in volunteers and tracking births and progress of the children.

Gene editing has not emerged without controversy. While many argue that this technology can be used to engineer the human race to create genetically enhanced future generations, it cannot be overlooked that CRISPR technology is fundamentally for helping to repair genetic defects before birth. While genetic discrimination and homogeneity are possible risks, the rewards from the eradication of many genetic disorders are too important to dismiss gene editing technology from existing.

 

The Weirder Side of CRISPR

If you’ve been following science news at all, you’ve heard of CRISPR, the gene-editing tool which is rapidly becoming a very hot topic. Since its discovery, CRISPR has been used for some truly extraordinary things. It’s also done some other things, which stray from medical miracles into the realm of the strange.

Alphr.com reports some of the weirder projects using CRISPR. This includes manufacturing super-dogs, as well as the possibility of bringing back the woolly mammoth! This is all being done as you read this through CRISPR CAS-9

Another project mentioned in the article is an effort to create organs in pigs suitable for human transplants. This has become a larger topic of conversation, as there is always an ample need for organs, and if this project comes to fruition, waiting lists for organ transplants could possibly be abolished completely.

To read the other weird projects using CRISPR right now, check out the article.

Comment below your thoughts on this article, and the uses of CRISPR in general. I, for one, would love to see a mammoth before my own eyes!

Crispr-Cas9 is the gateway to a new frontier in genetic engineering. Here’s The good and the bad.

For a number of years now, molecular biologists have been diving increasingly further into the field of genome editing. The latest development into the field is the emergence of CRISPR-Cas9. CRISPR-Cas9 has risen to prominence over other potential methods of genome editing due to its relatively simple construction and low cost. CRISPR-Cas9’s original primary and intended purpose was to help fix mutations within DNA, and with this it could theoretically help eradicate entire diseases. This application of CRISPR is wholly positive, however with the increasing prevalence of the technique other potential uses have been discovered, and some of these potential uses raise profound ethical questions.

One of the main concerns of people skeptical about CRISPR is their assertion that once the door to the wholesale genetic editing of offspring is open, there is no going back. This, on its own, is a reasonable concern. The ability to choose a child’s sex, eye color, hair color and skin complexion is very likely to be made available to by CRISPR in the coming years. CRISPR does not yet have the capability to influence more abstract elements of the genome, such as intelligence and athletic ability, but this may not be far off. There are legitimate concerns that this is a slippery slope towards a dystopian society similar to the one seen in the movie Gattaca, where society is stratified into two distinct classes: those who are genetically engineered and those who are not.

Another concern raised by some scientists is the overall safety of genetic editing. A potentially very hazardous negative result of CRISPR is the possibility of an “off target mutation.” An off target mutation is the result of CRISPR mutating something other than the intended part of the genome and it could have disastrous consequences. Now, many scientists believe that with further advancements in the field the likelihood of something like an off target mutation occurring could be reduced to almost zero. However, it is important to examine the risks of any new process, and the prospect of something like an off target mutation occurring is certainly noteworthy.

For more information click here.

CRISPR: The Next Step for Cancer Treatment

CRISPR is a gene editing technique that is currently still being researched and expanded upon, however, upon recent discoveries, one can note the great advantages this technology brings to the table to enhance cancer immunotherapy .  More specifically, according to the Washington University School of Medicine, “these T cell immunotherapies can’t be used if the T cells themselves are cancerous.” However, there is more to this discovery. Let’s backtrack.

What exactly is CRISPR? “CRISPR technology is a simple yet powerful tool for editing genomes. It allows researchers to easily alter DNA sequences and modify gene function. Its many potential applications include correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases and improving crops. However, its promise also raises ethical concerns.” For the sake of this article, we are just focusing on the benefits it has on cancer treatment solely. Also, what exactly are T cells? They are “a type of white blood cell that is of key importance to the immune system and is at the core of adaptive immunity, the system that tailors the body’s immune response to specific pathogens. The T cells are like soldiers who search out and destroy the targeted invaders.” On the other hand, T cells can become cancerous therefore not being able to accomplish their task of destroying invaders.

How does CRISPR enhance cancer immunotherapy? Scientists at the Washington University School of Medicine engineered human T cells that can attack cancerous human T cells. Additionally, they engineered the T cells to eliminate a harmful side effect known as graft-versus-host disease. This was all thanks to CRISPR. But, how exactly did they figure this out? Were there any flaws or bumps in the road?

Well, this type of treatment cannot work if the T cells they use are cancerous. Supercharged T cells can alternatively be used to kill cancerous T cells, but the cells can also kill each other because they resemble each other closely. This is where CRISPR came in, preventing the human T cells and cancerous human T cells from killing each other. Another benefit of this is that the scientists engineered the T cells so any donors T cells can be used without the fear of not matching the person in need of the T cells.

Overall, anything to better the prevention of cancer is a scientific win in most’s book. But, CRISPR is a controversial tool. Some think it should be put to use and some do not. However, will this technology alter other aspects of the human genome besides diseases and deadly occurrences? How will this affect our ethics as a community? Will our genetics continue to increasingly become more altered? Time will only tell.

What does the future hold for CRISPR-Cas9?

Genome editing, or the technologies in which scientists can change the DNA of an organism, is on the rise, especially with its latest development, CRISPR-Cas9, the most efficient method of all of the methods to edit DNA.

Like many other discoveries in science, CRISPR-Cas9 was discovered through nature. Scientists learned that certain bacteria capture snippets of DNA from invading viruses, making DNA segments called CRISPR arrays, helping them remember the virus to prepare for future invasions of that virus. When they are confronted with that virus again, RNA segments from the CRISPR arrays are created which target the DNA of the virus, causing the enzyme Cas9 to cut the virus’ DNA apart, which would destroy the virus.

 

We use the same method in genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 by creating RNA that binds to a specific sequence in a DNA strand and the Cas9, causing the Cas9 to cut the DNA at that specific sequence. Once this is done, the scientists create a sequence to replace the one that was cut to get the desired genome.

This technology is most prominently used to attempt to treat diseases, where the somatic cells’ genomes are altered which affect tissues, as well as prevent genetic diseases where the sperm or egg’s genome is changed. However, the latter causes some serious ethical concerns of whether we should use this technology to enhance human traits. But this begs the question that if we start using it more and more to prevent genetic diseases, will this open the door for it to be used in new ways?

CRISPR Defends Bacteria, and Helps Scientists Discover New Bacterial Defenses

Although CRISPR is known for being a gene-editing tool, it can be used in other areas, such as a defense mechanisms in bacteria. This discovery “Probably doubles the number of immune systems known in bacteria,” according to a microbiologist at the University of California. Bacteria have to defend themselves against Phages, which take control over bacteria’s genetic machinery and force them to produce viral DNA. Bacteria use CRISPR to defend themselves against Phages because it stores a piece of past invaders DNA so bacteria can recognize and fight of those future viruses.

 

Photo By J LEVIN W (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

the researchers found that nine groups of bacterial genes were defense systems, and one system protected against plasmids. The data revealed a possible shared origin between bacterial defense systems and defense systems in more complex organisms. Some of the genes contained DNA fragments that are also  important parts of the immune system in plants, mammals, and invertebrates. The discovery of more bacterial defense systems poses the question of wether they will also be useful biotechnology tools like CRISPR is.Only 40% of bacteria have CRISPR, so scientists searched for other bacterial defense mechanisms. To do this, they looked at genetic information from 45,000 microbes, flagging genes with unknown functions located near defense genes, because defense-related genes cluster together in the genome. The researchers then used genomic data to synthesize the DNA and  inserted them into Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, which can both be grown and studied in the lab. They then studied how well bacteria defended themselves during phage attacks with various genes detected. If eliminating certain genes deterred the bacteria’s defense, that determined that those specific genes were a defense system.

 

For more information, click here. For more information on CRISPR’s role in bacteria, click here.

The Child that Saved Millions

Thousands of years ago a child was born in west Africa with genetic mutation that altered the shape of his/her hemoglobin. This mutation wasn’t harmful because each person has two copies of every gene and the other gene was normal and so they lived and passed on their mutated gene that would save millions of lives.

The gene spread across all of Africa and into parts of southern Europe and India. Every so often two people with the gene would make a child that had two copies of the gene. The child would no longer be able to produce normal hemoglobin. As a result, their red cells became defective and clogged their blood vessels. The condition, now known as sickle cell anemia, leads to extreme pain, difficulty with breathing, kidney failure and even strokes. Most people with this disease die before 40.

In the early 1900s doctors in the U.S first noticed this disease and called its sickle cell anemia because of the way the cells look. Most cases were found in African Americans and studies showed that 8 percent of African Americans had some sickle-shaped blood cells, yet the vast majority had no symptoms at all.

By 1950 doctors had discovered that sickle cell anemia was an incomplete dominance trait and the people who had one copy of the mutated and one of the normal gene showed no symptoms. They soon found out the sickle cell anemia was not unique to the U.S in fact the gene turned up in high rates across Africa, southern Europe and into India. Genetically speaking this made no sense because having two copies of the trait was so deadly it would be most likely that the mutation would have become rarer with each generation.

In 1954 a geneticists Anthony C. Allison observed that people in Uganda who carried a copy of the sickle cell mutation had lower rates of getting malaria. Later research confirmed Dr. Allison’s findings. It seems that the sickle cells defend against malaria by starving the single-celled parasite that causes the disease. The parasite feeds on hemoglobin, and so it’s likely that it can’t grow on the sickle cell version of the molecule.

CRISPR/CAS9: Potential to destroy malaria?

CRISPR. Sounds more like a new brand of potato chip than something potentially revolutionary (Bold new flavor. Bold new crunch. CRISPR.). Nevertheless, this tool used for easy gene editing and slicing is tearing up the science world because it could be the key to combatting disorders and diseases.

Recent research indicates that CRISPR/Cas9 based genome editing tools could aid in the fight against malaria, one of the “big three” diseases that has long affected and continues to affect humans worldwide. How is CRISPR/Cas9 able to do this?

CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) originally are how bacteria protect themselves from foreign viruses. CRISPRs contain DNA from viruses that have attacked the bacteria, and so when a similar virus attacks, the bacteria knows that this virus and his DNA are bad. Essentially, CRISPRs allow bacteria to build up immunity. When foreign DNA is detected, the Cas9 enzyme is guided by the CRISPR and is able to cut the desired DNA. Scientists have come up with a way to engineer and manipulate the CRISP/CAS9 system into other organisms (such as mosquitoes) so that we can successfully edit genome sequences and genes to produce desired results. We take advantage by specifying which genes the Cas9 should cut/replace, and then it does just that. Therefore, the CRISPR/Cas9 system allows us new genome editing potential like none before.

Made by Viktoria Anselm.

How does this apply to mosquitoes and malaria? Scientists experimented with genetically modified malaria-transmitting mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae), altering the fibrinogen-related protein 1 (FREP1) gene on them. This gene essentially codes for a protein that makes mosquitoes a vector for malaria. The scientists used the CRISPR/Cas9 to inactivate this gene.

The results produced mosquitoes with significantly less transmission of malaria to both human and rodent cells. However, these mosquitoes have “reduced fitness”: a significantly lower blood-feeding propensity, egg hatching rate, a retarded larval development, and reduced longevity after a blood meal. Essentially this means that these mosquitoes have a low chance of affecting populations of mosquitoes in the wild without being “pushed” by scientists, where scientists are “forcing DNA to inherit particular sets of genes.” This is called a gene drive. With a strong push for a couple of years, there is potential for worldwide mosquito populations to be significantly changed in 10-15 years.

Photo taken by JJ Harrison

I chose to write about this new research and potential breakthrough because it really means something to me, as I have lived in and visited countries threatened by malaria. I had to take preventative pills every morning, and I would have to sleep in a restrictive mosquito net. All that made me wonder about and feel for a kid in the same country who didn’t have those things and how he or she would manage without those barriers to malaria. Having said that, I really do believe this is a worthwhile option we should explore, and I think it can make a difference for the world.

What do you think? Do you think it is realistic for theses mosquitoes to change the entire mosquito population and effectively help reduce malaria transmission? Will CRISPR/Cas9 work as we hoped? Or is it too good to be true?

CRISPR Cas9, too good to be true?

After its peak in popularity following its reveal as a possible “genetic modifier” in 2013, the CRISPR Cas-9 enzyme system has been the center of debate within the biology community. Thought to be the solution to all genetic and hereditary diseases by simply “cutting out” the fault gene, new research and studies have shown that a majority of people (65 to 79 percent) have antibodies that would fight cas-9 proteins.

“The study analyzed blood for antibodies to two bacteria from which Cas9 is derived: Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. The researchers’ concern stemmed from the fact that these bacteria frequently cause infections in humans, and so antibodies to them may be in our blood” states bigthink.com

While the overall effects are unclear, the study concludes that the result would be “significant toxicity” and an unsafe use of the gene editing tool.

What do you think? Is the current risk of using Cas-9 worth the reward?

Click here, here, and here for more information.

Cas9, photo by J LEVIN W

 

Potential cure to ALS, the disease that inspired the ice bucket challenge!

You all remember the ALS ice bucket challenge, that took social media by storm, in which people dumped ice water on their heads in order to raise money and awareness to ALS, a neurodegenerative disease that progressively destroys the motor neurons and eventually leads to death.

 

There is currently no cure to this horrible disease. However new genetic technology (CRISPR) may change all that.

In short, CRISPR is a new form of gene editing that allows scientists to change an organism’s DNA.

Scientists discovered that ALS is caused by a mutation in the C9orf72 gene. ALS is often caused by a significant repeat of a segment of DNA that becomes toxic. So, using CRISPR, scientists deducted which genes either protect against or cause these toxic DNA segments. This process was extremely effective and scientists found about 200 genes that affect ALS. For example, scientists found a gene that codes for a protein called Tmx2 that when removed from mice neurons caused the mice to survive whereas not removing them killed them. This means that scientists are beginning to figure out how to cure ALS.

Discoveries such as these are revolutionary as we can now find specific causes for previously fatal, cureless diseases  such as this. In addition, using this technology we can target these specific genes and save lives.

However, whenever we discuss gene editing we must ethically consider when does this become too far? Where is the line between helping to cure people and helping to destroy society by designing babies?

To answer my own question, I think it is crucial that we take any step possible to help find cures in situations such as this. That being said, there are clear limits that must be respected. The line is definitely hazy. Let me know in the comments your thoughts about gene editing!

But for now, let’s enjoy this scientific win and hope that ALS can be officially cured. Good job ice bucket challenge for bringing attention to a serious issue that may now actually be cured.

Original Article: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180305111517.htm

Cas9: A Clue Into Making Gene Editing Safer

CRISPR is a revolutionary system that edits the DNA of living organisms with ease. The gene-editing technology offers scientists insight into genetic diseases and is widely used in biotech and agriculture, as well as to treat cancer and viral infections. But the CRISPR system and its mechanisms are not yet fully understood. However, researchers at the Ohio State University have reported that they have figured out the mechanism of how the CRISPR system figures out where and when to cut the DNA strands. This is particularly revolutionary as it provides insight into preventing gene-cutting errors.

Cas9 is an enzyme that is used by the system to target and cut out or insert specific genes. In the second of two paper published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the team invalidates the widely-held belief that the enzyme cuts DNA evenly. Professor of chemistry and biochemistry Zucai Suo explains that instead of cutting both sides of the DNA double-helix to the same length, Cas9  actually trims each side to uneven lengths. Ohio State doctoral student Austin Raper and his co-authors determined that the two different parts of the “Cas9 molecule communicate with each other to set the location and timing of a cut”. The first part of the molecule sets forth to cut its respective DNA strand and changes shape and signals to the second part to cut its respective second strand.

Crystal Structure of Cas9 Enzyme

Suo says that he hopes their work allows for scientists to minimize and eventually eliminate gene-editing errors. CRISPR rarely target unintended genes, but gene-editing errors can have very serious consequences. For example, if the system accidentally cut a tumor suppressor gene from a person’s DNA, they would be much more likely to develop cancer. As Raper says, it is important to understand CRISPR and the Cas9 enzyme mechanisms in order to allow CRISPR to advance to its full potential.

 

Source: https://news.osu.edu/news/2018/02/28/cas9-2cuts/

Deleting Genes to Stop Malaria

A new discovery has highlighted the positive effects that the revolutionary new gene editing tool, CRISPR-Cas9, can have. Scientists at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Malaria Research Institute have discovered that the deletion of a single gene from the Anopheles Gambiae mosquito, called the FREP1 gene, yields promising results in the eradication of the malaria disease.

 

Image result for mosquito gene editing

Gene Editing

The FREP1 gene has been associated with being a malaria “host factor” gene because it helps the parasite live in the gut of the mosquitoes.  However, the scientists, using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing procedures, have been able to delete the FREP1 gene from the mosquitoes and have seen significant decreases in the spread of malaria. Without the host factor gene, the parasite has difficulty surviving in the mosquito, which decreases the spread of the disease to other organisms.

 

The deletion of the FREP1 gene had other effects in addition to the resistance of the malaria parasites. In the mosquitoes where the gene was deleted, many showed no signs of sporozoite-stage parasites in their salivary glands, which can spread to humans through mosquito bites. George Dimopoulos, PhD, professor in the Bloomberg School’s Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, commented on the study, saying that “if you could successfully replace ordinary, wild-type mosquitoes with these modified mosquitoes, it’s likely that there would be a significant impact on malaria transmission”.

Inside Out

CRISPR is a revolutionary tool used for editing the human genome. It allows for the altering of  any given DNA sequence and ability to modify any one specific genes’ function. Its applicability consists of correcting genetic defects, treating and preventing the spread of diseases, and improving crops. However, it also raises some ethical concerns, that of which mainly is the idea that practicing CRISPR technology could be considered as playing the role of “God”.

CRISPR was adapted from the natural defense mechanisms of bacteria, which use CRISPR-derived RNA and Cas proteins, to prevent attacks by viruses and other intruding organisms. They do so by chopping up and destroying the DNA of the virus. When these components are derived and applied to more complex, organisms, it allows for the manipulation of genes.

Disregarding its ethical concerns, CRISPR can provide substantial support to a previously uncharted area of medicine; the diagnosing and treating of genetic disorders, which was previously thought to be that if one had a genetic disorder it would be incurable.  Clinical trials are set to take place both in Europe and in North America, where patients with rare genetic disorders will give cellular samples in an attempt to alter their genome, implant them back into the individual, and hopefully cure the genetic abnormality.

With CRSPR taking such progressive strides in the past year, it is not outrageous to predict what its usage could end up providing society with.  With the ability to edit the human genome there are endless possibilities in which science could evolve this area of study to benefit the human race.  CRISPR can even be used to boost the expected intelligence of an embryo.  Who knows, thirty years from now we could be watching the news and hear of the first ever “superhuman”, a genetically modified human that has been hand-coded for optimality in all human functions.

Hello, CRISPR and Goodbye, Malaria

Everybody hates mosquitoes. Not only are they annoying pests that bite us during the summertime, but they are also transmitters of the parasite that spreads malaria–Plasmodium.  However, scientists believe that they have found a way to wipe out malaria for future generations. By using CRISPR in order to alter the fibrinogen-related protein 1 (FREP1), Plasmodium can be stopped from spreading amongst human beings.  The alteration stops the plasmodium from reaching the mosquitoes’ salvatory glands, effectively halting transmission into the human bloodstream.

However, although CRISPR is a lot less drastic than simply wiping out the mosquito population, it does come with minor setbacks.  The alteration made to the FREP1 gene causes the fertility of the mosquito as well as the egg-hatching rate to drop.  These effects cause the reproduction rates of the altered mosquitoes to be significantly lower than that of other mosquitoes.  If the modified mosquitoes are not able to reproduce, then the genetic modifications are unlikely to have any real effect on the transmission of malaria since they are not being passed on generationally.

The solution? Alter the female mosquitoes.  Only female mosquitoes transmit malaria, so scientists have realized that altering the genetic code of female mosquitoes might be the way to solve the problem with reproduction.  This way, the mosquitoes are able to maintain the genetic resistance to Plasmodium whilst avoiding the dramatic drop in reproduction.

Even though the alteration of mosquitoes’ genetics is definitely a scientific feat, there are no certainties when it comes to this attempt to stop malaria. Nobody is positive about whether or not CRISPR is the solution, but it is definitely a huge step in the right direction.

A New Addition to Gene Altering Technology

Today, there is new technology that allows genes to be edited. This is called CRISPR. CRISPR can fix genetic defects that lead to disease, improve food nutrition, and even resurrect extinct species. A research team in Japan created a new technology in addition to CRISPR that can change a single DNA base in the human genome. This is called Microhomology-Assisted eXcision or MhAX. The team called this new technique “absolute precision” in their article published in the Nature Communications journal.

MhAX originated when a group of researched wanted to have a better understanding on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), which are single DNA mutations that can contribute to hereditary disease. In order to discover that these SNPS cause disease, researchers need to compare two genetically matched “twin cells.” However, twin cells are difficult to make because twin cells are not completely identical-they have a single different SNP. MhAX gives a new way to make twin cells.

The research teams used an extensive process to make the edits. First, the SNP modification and fluorescent reporter gene is inputed into the cell. This allows for researchers to see which cells are changed. The researchers then created another same DNA sequence, called microhomology, that was stationed on each side of the fluorescent gene. This allowed for sites where CRISPR can enter and trim the DNA. In order to leave only the SNP in, the research team used microhomology-mediated end system (MMEJ), a repair system that can remove the fluorescent gene. This technique, according to the team of researches, is precise and they are hopeful that it will be used to gain a better understanding of disease mechanisms which could potentially lead to gene therapies.

MhAX is very interesting because it is an additional technique to CRISPR that can help alter genes. It is very fascinating to read about the future of genetics and the new technology being created that can changes genes connected to diseases and improve the lives of people. For more information on MhAX, click here and here. Based on this research, how do you think this technology will be used in the future?

 

 

 

The Future of CRISPR

CRISPR is starting to become more and more of a reality as Harvard professor David Liu continues to work on it. Liu was the person who originally developed CRISPR first base editor which allowed for single letter changes in the genetic code. Liu has come up with two new features to CRISPR-Cas9.

The first is called cellular detective or CAMERA(CRISPR-mediated analog multievent recording apparatus systems). What this function does is it finds the genetic problem that is responsible for the disease someone is experiencing. Cas9 will record all the cell data and piece info together, which overall will provide more information about cancer, stem cells, aging, and overall disease.

Photo Source

The second finding is referred to as sharp scissors which is a CRISPR enzyme. Sharp scissors are way more precise and accurate than the old enzyme making is much safer. The scissors depend on specific DNA to find the region where it is supposed to cut or edit. CRISPR is progressing and as more research is being done could be used on humans in the future.

 

CRISPRainbow

The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)and CRISPR-associated protein 9 complex has become one of the biggest technological advances in science. This genome editing technology has taken multiple advances toward closer research into studies of embryonic development to cancer. CRISPRainbow, a modification to CRISPR where the Cas9 is mutated, allows researchers to label up to seven different genomic locations in live cells.
CRISPR has been used for editing genomes, however, research specialist Hanhui Ma and his team has used it to label DNA and track the movement of DNA in live cells. With this new research, we can find the precise genomic location in order to understand the movement of chromosomes. This is important because the genes that create our biological make-up and control our health do so by their location in the 3-D space.
Currently, with CRISPR, we can only label three genomic locations at a time in each cell. It has extremely challenged scientists to label more sites because it would require cells to be mixed in formaldehyde, which would kill them, making it impossible to observe the chromosome’s structure when stimulated by a response.
The new Cas9 mutation causes the nuclease to deactivate, so it only binds to DNA and doesn’t cut the genome. Then, the CRISPRainbow is docked into location by the guide RNA which can be programmed technologically. Research specialist, Hanhui Ma was able to figure out a way to implement computational coloring. Each guide RNA would include one of the three primary fluorescent proteins: red, green or blue which then can be observed in real time under a microscope. Pretty cool, right? Well, guess what? It doesn’t stop here. Ma decided to go even further in his research and attach a second fluorescent protein to the guide RNA. Ma could then combine the three primary colors to generate three additional labels: cyan, magenta, and yellow. From the primary colors, he was able to achieve white as the seventh color.
CRISPRainbow can track the challenging and dynamic movement of genomes that may lead to biological consequences. Research Scientist, Hanhui Ma, states “With this technology, we can visualize different chromosome loci at different points in time.” We can observe the structural changes in chromosomes overtime with help us understand their relation to health and disease. So why do you think they called is CRISPRainbow? What kind of diseases can we track with this new technology? What more can CRISPRainbow do in the near future?

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